Three-toothed orchid Orchis tridentata, copyright Marco Klüber.

Belongs within: Orchidoideae.

The Orchidinae are a group of terrestrial orchids found primarily in the Northern Hemisphere, particularly around the Mediterranean and eastern Asia. Members include the bee orchids of the genus Ophrys whose flowers mimic large Hymenoptera and attract males of the mimicked species to act as pollinators via pseudocopulation. Platanthera, the butterfly orchids and fringed orchids, bear typically resupinate flowers with three-lobed lips that may be entire or fringed. Orchis is a Palaearctic genus bearing flowers in a cylindrical to globular spike.

Characters (from Dressler 1993): Terrestrial, rarely saprophytic, generally with root-stem tuberoids, roots without velamen; stem slender. Leaves spiral, scattered or basal and clustered, convolute, soft herbaceous, nonarticulate. Inflorescence terminal, simple, of few to many spiral flowers. Flowers small to medium-large, resupinate; lip usually with a basal spur; column short or moderately long; anther erect, basally firmly united with column; two or four pollinia, sectile, with two basal, interlocular caudicles attached to two or one basal viscidia; exine of pollen grains variable; stigma entire, concave.

    |--Anacamptis pyramidalisA86, PT98
    |    |--B. burmannianaERV99
    |    `--B. etheliaeERV99
    |--Himantoglossum hircinumA86, H91
    |    |--H. asperaERV99
    |    `--H. secundaERV99
    |--Neottianthe calcicolaA86, O88
    |    |--G. conopseaDO05
    |    `--G. orchidisO88
    |    |--G. spathulataO88
    |    `--G. stracheyiO88
    |    |--N. rubraH09
    |    `--N. suaveolensC55
    |--Serapias vomeraceaA86, PT98
    |    |--S. v. ssp. vomeraceaPT98
    |    `--S. v. ssp. laxifloraPT98
    |    |--D. aristataDO05
    |    |--D. incarnataDO05
    |    |--D. praetermissaDO05
    |    `--+--+--D. foliosaDO05
    |       |  `--D. maculataDO05
    |       `--+--D. fuchsiiDO05
    |          `--D. sacciferaDO05
    |    |--P. candidaH93
    |    |--P. cooperiH93
    |    |--P. elegans [=Habenaria elegans; incl. H. elegans var. maritima]H93
    |    |--P. elongataH93
    |    |--P. leptopetalaH93
    |    |--P. michaeliiH93
    |    |--P. transversaH93
    |    |--P. unalascensis [=Habenaria unalascensis]H93
    |    `--P. yadoniiH93
    |    |--O. anatolicaPT98
    |    |--O. globosaC55
    |    |--O. militarisC55
    |    |--O. morioPT98
    |    |    |--O. m. ssp. morioPT98
    |    |    `--O. m. ssp. pictaPT98
    |    |--O. pyramidalisH64
    |    |--O. rotundifoliaV72
    |    |--O. sanctaPT98
    |    |--O. spectabilisV72
    |    `--O. tridentataH91
    |    |--P. clavigeraO88
    |    |--P. exellianaO88
    |    |--P. hookeriS72
    |    |--P. hyperborea [=Habenaria hyperborea]H93
    |    |    |--P. h. var. hyperboreaV72
    |    |    `--‘Habenaria’ h. var. huronensis [=Orchis huronensis]V72
    |    |--P. latilabrisO88
    |    |--P. leptocaulonO88
    |    |--P. leucostachys [=Habenaria dilatata var. leucostachys]H93
    |    |--P. replicataRG07
    |    |--P. sparsiflora [=Habenaria sparsiflora]H93
    |    `--P. stricta [incl. Habenaria saccata]H93
         |--O. apiferaPT98
         |--O. araniferaH91
         |--O. ferrum-equinumPT98
         |--O. holosericaPT98
         |    |--O. h. ssp. holosericaPT98
         |    `--O. h. ssp. heterochilaPT98
         |--O. insectiferaBM76
         |--O. luteaPT98
         |    |--O. l. ssp. luteaPT98
         |    |--O. l. ssp. galilaeaPT98
         |    `--O. l. ssp. minorPT98
         |--O. regis-ferdinandiiPT98
         |--O. scolopaxSBM11
         |--O. sphegodesPT98
         `--O. umbilicataPT98

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A86] Atwood, J. T. 1986. The size of the Orchidaceae and the systematic distribution of epiphytic orchids. Selbyana 9: 171–186.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[DO05] Devos, N., S.-H. Oh, O. Raspé, A.-L. Jacquemart & P. S. Manos. 2005. Nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence variation and evolution of spotted marsh-orchids (Dactylorhiza maculata group). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 568–580.

Dressler, R. L. 1993. Phylogeny and Classification of the Orchid Family. Cambridge University Press.

[ERV99] Esler, K. J., P. W. Rundel & P. Vorster. 1999. Biogeography of prostrate-leaved geophytes in semi-arid South Africa: hypotheses on functionality. Plant Ecology 142 (1–2): 105–120.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[H64] Hogg, J. 1864. List of rarer phanerogamous plants discovered in the south-east of Durham since 1829. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 96.

[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

[RG07] Ramírez, S. R., B. Gravendeel, R. B. Singer, C. R. Marshall & N. E. Pierce. 2007. Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator. Nature 448: 1042–1045.

[S72] Shields, O. 1972. Flower visitation records for butterflies (Lepidoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 189–203.

[SBM11] Solomon, E. P., L. R. Berg & D. W. Martin (eds) 2011. Biology 9th ed. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

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