White bunny orchid Eriochilus dilatatus, copyright Jean and Fred Hort.

Belongs within: Monandrae.
Contains: Caladenia, Cranichideae, Thelymitra, Acianthinae, Pterostylis, Diuridinae, Prasophyllinae, Orchidinae, Habenariinae.

The Orchidoideae are a clade of terrestrial orchids united by spiral phyllotaxy, together with the presence of polygonal epidermal cells, and intercellular spaces in the testa (Freudenstein & Rasmussen 1999, as Orchidoideae + Spiranthoideae).

Orchidoideae [Caladeniae, Caladeniinae, Chloraeinae, Diurideae]
    |  |  `--+--+--Megastylis Schlechter 1911RG07, H49b
    |  |     |  `--CranichideaeRG07
    |  |     `--+--+--ThelymitraFR99
    |  |        |  `--AcianthinaeFR99
    |  |        `--Pterostylidinae [Pterostylideae]ME70
    |  |             |--PterostylisRG07
    |  |             `--Caleana Br. 1810ME70
    |  |                  `--C. minor Br. 1810ME70 [=Paracaleana minor (Brown) Blaxell 1972HE80]
    |  `--+--+--DiuridinaeRG07
    |     |  `--Chiloglottis Br. 1810RG07, ME70
    |     |       |--C. cornuta Hooker 1844H49a (see below for synonymy)
    |     |       |--C. formicifera Fitzgerald 1885H49a
    |     |       |--C. gunniiM89
    |     |       `--C. trapeziformisH86
    |     `--+--PrasophyllinaeRG07
    |        `--EriochilusRG07
    |             |--E. autumnalisH86
    |             |--E. dilatatusOS04
    |             |    |--E. d. ssp. dilatatusOS04
    |             |    `--E. d. ssp. multiflorusOS04
    |             `--E. scaberGK00
    `--+--Codonorchis [Codonorchideae]RG07
       |    `--C. lessoniiD03
            |  i. s.: SatryiinaeA86
            |           |--PachitesA86
            |           |--SatyridiumA86
            |           `--SatyriumFR99
            |                |--S. bicorneERV99
            |                |--S. erectumERV99
            |                |--S. humileERV99
            |                |--S. nepalenseO88
            |                `--S. repensJ23
            |    |--DisperisRG07
            |    `--PterygodiumA86
               |    |--OrchidinaeRG07
               |    |--HabenariinaeA86
               |    `--Huttonaea [Huttonaeinae]A86
                    |--Disa bracteataRG07, OS04
                    |--Monadenia bracteataA86, GK00
Orchidoideae incertae sedis:
  Lyperanthus Br. 1810ME70
    |--L. antarcticus Hooker 1847H49b
    |--L. forrestiiH49b
    |--L. nigricans Brown 1810H49b
    |--L. serratusH49b
    `--L. suaveolens Brown 1810H49b [=Caladenia suaveolensH86]
  Petalochilus Rogers 1924 (n. d.)H49c, ME70
    |--P. calyciformis Rogers 1924 (n. d.)H49c
    `--P. saccatus Rogers 1924 (n. d.)H49c
  Geoblasta penicillataLY21
  Adenochilus Hook. f. 1853A86, ME70
    |--A. gracilis Hook. f. 1853ME70
    `--A. nortoniH08
  Aporostylis Rupp & Hatch 1946A86, ME70
    `--*A. bifolia (Hooker) Rupp & Hatch 1945 (see below for synonymy)H49a
  Arthrochilus byrnesiiA86, LK14
    |--D. glyptodonGK00
    `--D. lividaGK00
    |--E. brunonisOS04
    `--E. emarginataGK00
  Glossodia majorA86, C08
  Leporella fimbriataA86, OS04
  Paracaleana nigritaA86, GK00
  Rimacola Rupp 1942A86, H49b
    `--*R. ellipticus [=Lyperanthus ellipticus Brown 1810]H49b
    |--C. huegeliiGK00
    `--C. robustaGK00
Nomen nudum: Eriochilus dilatatus ssp. undulatus Gibson & Keighery 2000GK00

*Aporostylis bifolia (Hooker) Rupp & Hatch 1945 [=Caladenia bifolia Hooker 1853, Chiloglottis bifolia (Hooker) Schlechter 1911; incl. Ca. macrophylla Col. 1895, Ch. traversii von Mueller 1864]H49a

Chiloglottis cornuta Hooker 1844H49a [=Caladenia cornuta (Hooker) Reichb. 1871ME70; incl. Ch. muelleri Fitzgerald 1855H49a]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A86] Atwood, J. T. 1986. The size of the Orchidaceae and the systematic distribution of epiphytic orchids. Selbyana 9: 171–186.

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[C06] Cheeseman, T. F. 1906. Manual of the New Zealand Flora. John Mackay, Government Printer: Wellington.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[ERV99] Esler, K. J., P. W. Rundel & P. Vorster. 1999. Biogeography of prostrate-leaved geophytes in semi-arid South Africa: hypotheses on functionality. Plant Ecology 142 (1–2): 105–120.

[FR99] Freudenstein, J. V., & F. N. Rasmussen. 1999. What does morphology tell us about orchid relationships?—a cladistic analysis. American Journal of Botany 86: 225–248.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H08] Hamilton, A. A. 1908. Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 286.

[H86] Hamilton, A. G. 1886. List of the Orchideae of the Mudgee district. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (3): 865–878.

[H49a] Hatch, E. D. 1949a. Aporostylis R. and Hh., Townsonia Cheesmn., and the New Zealand forms of Chiloglottis R. Br. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 226–229.

[H49b] Hatch, E. D. 1949b. Lyperanthus antarcticus Hook. f. and the New Zealand forms of Gastrodia R. Br. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (2): 230–233.

[H49c] Hatch, E. D. 1949c. Petalochilus Rog. and the New Zealand forms of Caladenia R. Br. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 398–402.

[HE80] Healy, A. J., & E. Edgar. 1980. Flora of New Zealand vol. 3. Adventive cyperaceous, petalous and spathaceous monocotyledons. P. D. Hasselberg, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[LY21] Liu, Z., S.-J. Yang, Y.-Y. Wang, Y.-Q. Peng, H.-Y. Chen & S.-X. Luo. 2021. Tackling the taxonomic challenges in the family Scoliidae (Insecta, Hymenoptera) using an integrative approach: a case study from southern China. Insects 12: 892.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M89] Maiden, J. H. 1889. Notes on the geographical distribution of some New South Wales plants, compiled from information supplied by W. Bauerlen, and from some diagnoses by Baron von Mueller, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., &c. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 107–112.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[O88] Ohba, H. 1988. The alpine flora of the Nepal Himalayas: an introductory note. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 19–46.

[RG07] Ramírez, S. R., B. Gravendeel, R. B. Singer, C. R. Marshall & N. E. Pierce. 2007. Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator. Nature 448: 1042–1045.

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