Ornithogalum

Star of Bethlehem Ornithogalum umbellatum, from here.

Belongs within: Hyacinthaceae.

Ornithogalum is a genus of about 200 species of bulbous plant found in Africa and southern Asia. Species of Ornithogalum have previously been divided between a number of genera whose reciprocal monophyly has not been supported by molecular analysis, with characters previously separating genera representing floral specialisations to different pollinators (Manning et al. 2004).

Bird’s milk
Published 22 July 2023

Walking across open ground in southern Africa or the Mediterranean, one might encounter a stand of brilliant white, star-like flowers, emerging from a basal rosette of strap-like leaves. These are species of the genus Ornithogalum, named from the Greek for ‘bird’s milk’.

Star of Bethlehem Ornithogalum umbellatum, copyright Hectonichus.

Though this name has long been associated with the genus, even before the established concept of binomial nomenclature, no-one seems quite sure why (Obermeyer 1978). Some attribute it to the bright white coloration of most species (though some bear flowers in yellow, orange or green). Others connect it to an eastern Mediterranean expression describing something as ‘unobtainable as bird’s milk’. Still others favour a more scatological expression, suggesting that the white flowers scattered over a field might resemble the leavings of a flock of birds. English vernacular names that have been given to species in the genus include ‘star of Bethlehem’, in reference to that famous intersection of meteorology and theology. South African species have been referred to as ‘chinkerichees’, referring to the squeaking sound of fresh flower stalks rubbing against one another.

Chinkerichees Ornithogalum cf. thyrsoides, copyright Alexey Yakovlev.

The exact circumscription of Ornithogalum has been subject to dispute. It forms the core of the Ornithogaloideae, an assemblage of close to 300 species in the family Hyacinthaceae characterised by a three-lobed to capitate stigma, flat to angular seeds with a firmly adhering testa, and the presence of chemical compounds known as cardenolides (Van Jaarsveld 2002). Ornithogaloids are bulbous plants with the above-ground organs usually being deciduous. However, the recognition of appropriate generic divisions within the Ornithogaloideae has not been easy. Eventually, Manning et al. (2004) proposed not so much cutting the Gordian knot as lifting it above and passing underneath, by proposing that all ornithogaloids be combined in the single genus Ornithogalum. This solution was not that well received, and further studies led Manning et al. (2009) to suggest dividing the subfamily between four genera. Ornithogalum remained the largest genus of ornithogaloids, including about 160 species bearing spreading or nodding flowers with more or less free tepals that are largely unicoloured, or have a narrow green or brown median band that is not associated with aggregated veins. The 2009 concept of Ornithogalum has been better accepted, though Martínez-Azorín et al. (2011) made an alternative proposal recognizing a total of 19 ornithogaloid genera. In that case, Ornithogalum is restricted to a western Palaearctic clade bearing white flowers with a green stripe on the abaxial side of the tepals, and leaves often having a longitudinal white band on the adaxial side.

Sun star Ornithogalum dubium, copyright Annemarieah.

Several Ornithogalum species have become popular garden plants, grown for their floral displays. Prussian asparagus O. pyrenaicum is a European species whose young flower shoots may be eaten as a vegetable. Conversely, some South African species are severely toxic; a single inflorescence of the chinkerinchee O. thyrsoides included in forage can kill a horse (Obermeyer 1978). As always, it is very important you know what you’re dealing with.

Systematics of Ornithogalum

Characters (from Manning et al. 2004): Deciduous or rarely evergreen; bulb subterranean or epigeal, subglobose or rarely poorly developed and rootstock rhizomatous, tunics sometimes scale-like or loosely overlapping, rarely fragmenting into wedge-shaped segments, usually white but rarely pinkish; outer bulb tunics membranous, papery or leathery. Leaves 1 to several, green or dry at flowering, erect or spreading, linear to oblong or filiform, sometimes very succulent, usually glabrous but sometimes pubescent or glandular-pubescent, margins smooth, ciliate, fringed, or hyaline, sheaths sometimes persistent and forming a papery or weakly to strongly fibrous, sometimes horizontally barred sheath around base of stem. Inflorescence a several- to many-flowered raceme, sometimes subcorymbose with shortened axis, or secund, usually solitary but sometimes more than one; peduncle rarely papillate; bracts membranous or leafy, small or large, not spurred; bracteoles usually lacking but sometimes thread-like and borne on alternate sides of pedicels at base; pedicels short or long. Flowers white, yellow, orange, or yellowish green, with or without darker keels, scented or unscented, sometimes closing at night or more rarely nocturnal, suberect, patent or nodding, rotate, campanulate or more or less tubular, rarely weakly zygomorphic; tepals ovate to narrowly lanceolate, persistent, more or less shortly united at base or less commonly united into a distinct tube, spreading to erect, sometimes with tips reflexed, sometimes weakly to markedly dimorphic, the inner sometimes erect and more or less connivent around stamens and style and cupped or hooded and papillate at tips or developing a fleshy apical knob or flap that can be conspicuously hinged, the outer sometimes with a caudate apical appendage; stamens suberect or lightly spreading, filaments free or rarely united below, fused to base of tepals or inserted at top of tube, filiform to lanceolate, all similar or inner usually broader, both whorls or more usually inner variously expanded or toothed below, rarely membranous and closely appressed to perianth when anthers apparently sessile; anthers of outer stamens sometimes smaller or vestigial or absent; ovary ovoid to globose or turbinate, sometimes shortly stipitate, rarely with 3 apical knobs, smooth or with distinct paraseptal crests; ovules few to many per locule; style vestigial to long, cylindrical and sometimes slightly deflexed or subcylindrical or more or less trigonous or prismatic and then strongly papillate; stigma small and 3-lobed or -angled or pyramidal to large and capitate and then distinctly papillate and sometimes fringed with longer papillae. Capsule fusiform, ovoid to globose, more or less 3-angled or -lobed, membranous or leathery, enclosed in dry perianth or exposed, dehiscing loculicidally; seeds few to many per locule, flattened or angled to discoid, sometimes stacked tightly one on top of another, black, testa tightly adhering. x = 9, other base numbers 12, 11, 8, 7, 6, 4.

<==Ornithogalum Linné 1753EN20 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*O. (subg. Ornithogalum) umbellatum Linné 1753EN20, MGF04, EN20 (see below for synonymy)
    |--‘Eliokarmos’ flexuosumMGF04
    |--‘Cathissa’ reverchoniiMGF04
    |--O. sordidumMGF04
    |--O. tenuifolium Delaroche 1811 [=Stellarioides tenuifolium; incl. O. acuminatum Baker 1870]MGF04
    |--+--O. etesiogaripense (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
    |  `--O. unifoliumERV99 [=Stellarioides unifoliumMGF04]
    |--+--O. graminifolium [=Eliokarmos graminifolium]MGF04
    |  `--O. sardienii Van Jaarsveld 1994EN20 (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--O. filicaule Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
    |  |--O. rotatum [=Stellarioides rotatum]MGF04
    |  `--O. uitenhagense (Schönland) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004MGF04 (see below for synonymy)
    |--+--O. xanthochlorum [=Zahariadia xanthochlorum]MGF04
    |  `--+--O. subg. Galtonia (Decaisne) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 [=Galtonia Decaisne 1880]EN20
    |     |    `--O. candicans (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004MGF04 (see below for synonymy)
    |     `--+--O. saundersiae [=Zahariadia saundersiae]MGF04
    |        `--O. viridiflorum (Verd.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
    `--+--‘Eliokarmos’ bicornutumMGF04
       |--‘Eliokarmos’ constrictumMGF04
       |--O. fimbrimarginatumERV99 [=Eliokarmos fimbrimarginatumMGF04]
       |--‘Eliokarmos’ hispidumMGF04
       |--‘Eliokarmos’ pruinosumMGF04
       `--O. subg. Aspasia (Salisbury) Obermeyer 1978 [=Aspasia Salisbury 1866 (nom. illeg.)]EN20
            `--O. conicumEN20 [=*Aspasia conicaEN20, Eliokarmos conicumMGF04]
Ornithogalum incertae sedis:
  O. acutum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. albanense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. angolense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. arabicum Linnaeus 1753CC87 [=*Caruelia arabicaEN20, *Melomphis arabicaMGF04, *Myanthe arabicaEN20]
  O. aristatum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. auratum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. bakerianum (Bolus) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi bakerianum Bolus 1881]MGF04
  O. baurii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca baurii Baker 1897]MGF04
  O. bifoliatum (Dyer) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca bifoliata Dyer 1931]MGF04
  O. boucheanumGR98
  O. britteniae Leighton 1978 [=Nicipe britteniae (Leighton ex Obermeyer) Martínez-Azorín et al. 2011]EN20
  O. bulbilliferum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. candidumCV06
  O. circinatum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. collinum Guss. 1825MGF04
  O. comosumH91
  O. comptonii Leighton 1944 (see below for synonymy)EN20
  O. concanense (Dalzell) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. concinnum [=*Cathissa concinna]MGF04
  O. cooperi (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca cooperi Baker 1874]MGF04
  O. cowanii (Perrier) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi cowanii Perrier 1935]MGF04
  ‘Eliokarmos’ craibiiEN20
  O. crinifolium (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. crispum (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi crispum Baker 1871]MGF04
  O. dalyae (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca dalyae Baker 1903]MGF04
  O. decipiens (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. desertorum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. diphyllum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. divergens [incl. O. proliferum Jord. & Fourr. 1866]MGF04
  O. dividens Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. drakensbergense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. dubium [incl. O. aureum Curtis 1792]MGF04
  O. durandianum (Schinz) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. echinospermum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. englerianum (Krause & Dinter) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. erythraeum (Webb & Berthel.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. exuviatum (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca exuviata Baker 1897]MGF04
  O. falcatum (Lewis) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. fastigiatum (Dryand.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. fimbriatum [incl. O. ciliare Fischer ex Graham 1831]MGF04
  O. fimbrifolium Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. flaccidum (Jacq.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca flaccida Jacq. 1791]MGF04
  O. fleckii (Schinz) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca fleckii Schinz 1896]MGF04
  O. foetidum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. fragrans (Jacq.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca fragrans Jacq. 1797]MGF04
  O. geniculatum Obermeyer 1978 [=Eliokarmos geniculatus (Obermeyer) Martínez-Azorín et al. 2011]EN20
  O. glanduliferum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. glandulosum Oberm. 1978MGF04
  O. glaucescens Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. goswinii (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. gracillimum Fries 1927MGF04
  O. hallii (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. hereroense (Schinz) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. hesquaspoortense (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. heterocuspe (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. humile (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca humilis Baker 1895]MGF04
  O. hyacinthiflorum Bergius ex Schltdl. 1826MGF04
  O. juncifolium Jacquin 1797EN20 (see below for synonymy)
    |--O. j. var. juncifolium (see below for synonymy)EN20
    `--O. j. var. emmsii Van Jaarsveld & van Wyk 2005EN20
  O. karasmontanum Monng & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. kirkii [=Albuca kirkii]MGF04
  O. lacteumCC87
  O. lanatum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. latifolium [=*Eustachys latifolium]EN20
  O. leucanthum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. lithopsoides Van Jaarsveld 2009 [=Nicipe lithopsoides (Van Jaarsveld) Martínez-Azorín et al. 2014]EN20
  O. longifolium (Lindley) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. longipes (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca longipes Baker 1903]MGF04
  O. macowanii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca macowanii Baker 1897]MGF04
  O. maculatum Jacquin 1789 (see below for synonymy)EN20
  O. maharashtrense (Deb & Dasgupta) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. marlothii Leight. 1945MGF04
  O. minor (Hooker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi minor Hooker 1892]MGF04
  O. monophyllum Baker 1897MGF04
  O. montanum Ten. 1810 [incl. O. platyphyllum Boiss. 1844]MGF04
  O. monticola Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. moylei Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. namaquense (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca namaquensis Baker 1897]MGF04
  O. namibiense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. narbonensePT98
  O. naviculum Barker ex Obermeyer 1978 (see below for synonymy)EN20
  O. niveum [=*Nicipe nivea]EN20
  O. nutans [=*Albucca nutans, *Brizophile nutans, *Honorius nutans, *Myogalum nutans, *Syncodium nutans]EN20
  O. oligophyllum [incl. O. bifolium Koch 1847]MGF04
  O. papillatum (Oberm.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. papyraceum (Manning & Goldblatt) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. parvum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. patersoniae (Schönland) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. pendens Van Jaarsveld & van Wyk 2009 [=Eliokarmos pendens (Van Jaarsveld) Martínez-Azorín et al. 2015]EN20
  O. perdurans Dold & Hammer 2003 [=Nicipe perdurans (Dold & Hammer) Martínez-Azorín et al. 2011]EN20
  O. pilosum [incl. O. affine Schult.f. 1830]MGF04
  O. planifolium Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. prasinum [=*Ethesia prasina]EN20
  O. princeps (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. pyramidaleH91
  O. pyrenaicum [=*Beryllis pyrenaicum, *Loncomelos pyrenaicus]EN20
  O. rautaneniiCV06
  O. readii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. regale (Hilliard & Burtt) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. reidii (Deb & Dasgupta) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. richtersveldensis Van Jaarsveld 2016EN20
  O. rigidifolium (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. robertsonianum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. rogersii Baker 1897MGF04
  O. rupestre Linné 1782 (see below for synonymy)EN20
  O. saxatilis Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. saxorum (Blatt.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi saxorum Blatt. 1928]MGF04
  O. schlechteri (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. schoenlandii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. simile Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. sphaerocarpumPT98
  O. tenuis (Knudtzon) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca tenuis Knudtzon 1986]MGF04
  O. teretifolium Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. thyrsifloraEN20
  O. thyrsoides Jacq. 1776CC87 [=*Eliokarmos thyrsoidesMGF04]
  O. tortuosum Baker in Thiselton-Dyer 1897 (see below for synonymy)EN20
  O. trachyphyllum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. transvaalense (Mogg) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. tubiformeCV06
  O. turbinatum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
    |--O. t. var. turbinatumMGF04
    `--O. t. var. madrasicum (Barnes & Fischer) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. ursulae (Blatt.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi ursulae Blatt. 1928]MGF04
    |--O. u. var. ursulaeMGF04
    `--O. u. var. longiracemosum (Deb & Dasgupta) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. vaginatum (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi vaginatum Baker 1898]MGF04
  O. weberlingiorum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. wilsonii Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. xanthocodon (Hilliard & Burtt) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 (see below for synonymy)MGF04
  O. subg. Avonsera (Speta) Manning & Goldblatt 2009 [=Avonsera Speta 1998]EN20
    `--O. convallarioides [=*Avonsera convallarioides]MGF04

Ornithogalum Linné 1753EN20 [=Celsia Heister ex Fabricius 1763 (nom. illeg.)EN20; incl. Albucca Reichenbach 1830 (nom. illeg.)EN20, Beryllis Salisbury 1866 (nom. illeg.)EN20, Brizophile Salisbury 1866 (nom. illeg.)EN20, Caruelia Parlatore 1854 (nom. illeg.)EN20, Cathissa Salisbury 1866MGF04, Eliokarmos Rafinesque 1837MGF04, Elsiea Leighton 1944EN20, Ethesia Rafinesque 1837EN20, Eustachys Salisbury 1866 (nom. illeg.)EN20, Honorius Gray 1821MGF04, Loncomelos Rafinesque 1837MGF04, Melomphis Rafinesque 1837MGF04, Myanthe Salisbury 1866 (nom. illeg.)EN20, Myogalum Link 1829 (nom. illeg.)EN20, Neopatersonia Schönland 1912MGF04, Nicipe Rafinesque 1837EN20, Phaeocles Salisbury 1866EN20, Syncodium Rafinesque 1837 (nom. illeg.)EN20, Zahariadia Speta 1998 (nom. inv.)EN20; Ornithogaleae]

Ornithogalum acutum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca acuminata Baker 1903 non O. acuminatum Baker 1870]MGF04

Ornithogalum albanense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca longifolia Baker 1903 non O. longifolium (Lindley) Manning & Goldblatt 2004]MGF04

Ornithogalum angolense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca monophylla Baker 1878 non O. monophyllum Baker 1897]MGF04

Ornithogalum aristatum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca caudata Jacq. 1791 non O. caudatum Aiton 1789]MGF04

Ornithogalum auratum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca aurea Jacq. 1791 non O. aureum Curtis 1792]MGF04

Ornithogalum bulbilliferum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca prolifera Wilson 1898 non O. proliferum Jord. & Fourr. 1866]MGF04

Ornithogalum candicans (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004MGF04 [=Hyacinthus candicans Baker in Saunders 1870MGF04, *Galtonia candicans (Baker) Decaisne 1880EN20, MGF04]

Ornithogalum comptonii Leighton 1944 [=Nicipe comptonii (Leighton) Martínez-Azorín et al. 2011; incl. Stellarioides spiralifolia Van Jaarsveld 2016]EN20

Ornithogalum concanense (Dalzell) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Uropetalon concanense Dalzell 1850, Dipcadi concanense (Dalzell) Baker 1871]MGF04

Ornithogalum crinifolium (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca crinifolia Bakder 1897]MGF04

Ornithogalum decipiens (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca decipiens Müll.-Doblies 1995]MGF04

Ornithogalum desertorum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca reflexa Dinter & Krause 1914 non O. reflexum Freyn & Sint. 1894]MGF04

Ornithogalum diphyllum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca bifolia Baker 1903 non O. bifolium Koch 1847]MGF04

Ornithogalum dividens Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca paradoxa Dinter 1923 non O. paradoxum Jacq. 1796]MGF04

Ornithogalum drakensbergense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca rupestris Hilliard & Burtt 1985 non O. rupestre Linnaeus 1782]MGF04

Ornithogalum durandianum (Schinz) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi durandianum Schinz in Durand & Schinz 1895; incl. D. marlothii Engl. 1889 non O. marlothii Leight. 1945]MGF04

Ornithogalum echinospermum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca echinosperma Müll.-Doblies 1994]MGF04

Ornithogalum englerianum (Krause & Dinter) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca engleriana Krause & Dinter 1910]MGF04

Ornithogalum erythraeum (Webb & Berthel.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi erythraeum Webb & Berthel. 1848]MGF04

Ornithogalum etesiogaripense (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca etesiogaripensis Müll.-Doblies 1995, Stellarioides etesiogaripensis]MGF04

Ornithogalum falcatum (Lewis) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Neopatersonia falcata Lewis 1952]MGF04

Ornithogalum fastigiatum (Dryand.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca fastigiata Dryand. 1784]MGF04

Ornithogalum filicaule Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Neopatersonia namaquensis Lewis 1952 non O. namaquense (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt 2004]MGF04

Ornithogalum fimbrifolium Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca ciliaris Müll.-Doblies 1994 non O. ciliare Fischer ex Graham 1831; incl. A. navicula Müll.-Doblies 1994]MGF04

Ornithogalum foetidum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca foetida Müll.-Doblies 1995]MGF04

Ornithogalum glanduliferum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca glandulosa Baker 1875 non O. glandulosum Oberm. 1978]MGF04

Ornithogalum glaucescens Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca glauca Baker 1904 non O. glaucum Dethard. ex Schult.f. 1702]MGF04

Ornithogalum goswinii (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca goswinii Müll.-Doblies 1995]MGF04

Ornithogalum hallii (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca hallii Müll.-Doblies 1994]MGF04

Ornithogalum hereroense (Schinz) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca hereroensis Schinz 1896]MGF04

Ornithogalum hesquaspoortense (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca hesquaspoortensis Müll.-Doblies 1995]MGF04

Ornithogalum heterocuspe (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi heterocuspe Baker 1883]MGF04

Ornithogalum juncifolium Jacquin 1797EN20 [=Eliokarmos juncifoliumMGF04, Nicipe juncifolia (Jacquin) Martínez-Azorín et al. 2011EN20]

Ornithogalum juncifolium Jacquin 1797 var. juncifolium [incl. O. brevifolium Leighton 1943, O. capillifolium Fourcade 1934, Nicipe capillifolia (Fourcade) Martínez-Azorín et al. 2011, O. epigeum Leighton 1943, O. griseum Baker 1873, O. langebergense Leighton 1945, O. leptophyllum Baker 1897, O. limosum Fourcade 1934, O. oliganthum Baker 1897, O. petraeum Fourcade 1934, Nicipe petraea (Fourcade) Martínez-Azorín et al. 2011, O. setifolium Kunth 1843, O. stenostachyum Baker 1901, O. subulatum Baker 1874, O. tenuipes Wright 1901]EN20

Ornithogalum karasmontanum Monng & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca karasbergensis Glover 1915 non O. karasbergense Glover 1915]MGF04

Ornithogalum lanatum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca villosa Müll.-Doblies 1994 non O. villosum Kitton 1863]MGF04

Ornithogalum leucanthum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca leucantha Müll.-Doblies 1994]MGF04

Ornithogalum longifolium (Lindley) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Uropetalon longifolium Lindley 1826, Dipcadi longifolium (Lindley) Baker 1870]MGF04

Ornithogalum maculatum Jacquin 1789 [=*Phaeocles maculatum; incl. O. thunbergianum var. concolor Baker 1897, O. insigne Leighton 1943, O. magnificum Von Poellnitz 1946, Eliokarmos neomaculatus Martínez-Azorín et al. 2011 (nom. illeg.), O. notatum Schultes 1829 (nom. illeg.), O. roussouwii Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies 1996, O. speciosum Baker 1891, O. maculatum var. speciosum (Baker) Leighton 1944 (nom. inv.), O. splendens Bolus 1931, O. maculatum var. splendens (Bolus) Leighton 1944, O. thunbergianum Baker 1873, Eliokarmos thunbergianus (Baker) Martínez-Azorín et al. 2015]EN20

Ornithogalum maharashtrense (Deb & Dasgupta) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi maharashtrensis Deb & Dasgupta 1975, D. maharashtrense]MGF04

Ornithogalum monticola Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca collina Baker 1897 non O. collinum Guss. 1825]MGF04

Ornithogalum moylei Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca rogersii Schönland 1914 non O. rogersii Baker 1897]MGF04

Ornithogalum namibiense Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca dinteri Müll.-Doblies 1995 non O. dinteri Baker 1901]MGF04

Ornithogalum naviculum Barker ex Obermeyer 1978 [=Eliokarmos naviculus (Barker ex Obermeyer) Martínez-Azorín et al. 2011]EN20

Ornithogalum papillatum (Oberm.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi papillatum Oberm. 1964]MGF04

Ornithogalum papyraceum (Manning & Goldblatt) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca papyracea Manning & Goldblatt 2000]MGF04

Ornithogalum parvum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca nana Schönland 1912 non O. nanum (Burm.f.) Thunberg 1794]MGF04

Ornithogalum patersoniae (Schönland) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca patersoniae Schönland 1910]MGF04

Ornithogalum planifolium Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi platyphyllum Baker 1898 non O. platyphyllum Boiss. 1844]MGF04

Ornithogalum princeps (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Hyacinthus princeps Baker in Saunders 1870, *Galtonia princeps (Baker) Decaisne 1880]MGF04

Ornithogalum readii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi setosum var. readii Baker 1871, D. readii (Baker) Baker 1897; incl. D. ciliare (Zeyh. ex Harv.) Baker 1871 non Ornithogalum ciliare Fischer ex Graham 1831]MGF04

Ornithogalum regale (Hilliard & Burtt) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Galtonia regalis Hilliard & Burtt 1986]MGF04

Ornithogalum reidii (Deb & Dasgupta) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi reidii Deb & Dasgupta 1978]MGF04

Ornithogalum rigidifolium (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi rigidifolium Baker 1871]MGF04

Ornithogalum robertsonianum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca robertsoniana Müll.-Doblies 1995]MGF04

Ornithogalum rupestre Linné 1782 [incl. O. aurantiacum Baker 1878, O. multifolium Baker 1873, O. perpulchrum Schlechter ex Von Poellnitz 1944, O. ranunculoides Bolus 1933]EN20

Ornithogalum sardienii Van Jaarsveld 1994EN20 [=Eliokarmos sardieniiMGF04, Nicipe sardienii (Van Jaarsveld) Martínez-Azorín et al. 2011EN20]

Ornithogalum saxatilis Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca massonii Baker 1886 non O. massonii Gmel. 1791]MGF04

Ornithogalum schlechteri (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca schlechteri Baker 1903]MGF04

Ornithogalum schoenlandii (Baker) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca schoenlandii Baker 1903]MGF04

Ornithogalum simile Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca affinis Baker 1903 non O. affine Schult.f. 1830]MGF04

Ornithogalum teretifolium Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca polyphylla Baker 1874 non O. polyphyllum Jacq. 1795]MGF04

Ornithogalum tortuosum Baker in Thiselton-Dyer 1897 [=Nicipe tortuosa (Baker) Martínez-Azorín et al. 2011; incl. O. comptum Baker 1873, Anthericum filifolium Thunberg 1794, Nicipe filifolia (Thunberg) Martínez-Azorín et al. 2011, Ornithogalum thunbergianulum Müller-Doblies & Müller-Doblies 1996]EN20

Ornithogalum trachyphyllum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca trachyphylla Müll.-Doblies 1994]MGF04

Ornithogalum transvaalense (Mogg) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca transvaalensis Mogg 1947]MGF04

Ornithogalum turbinatum Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Uropetalon montanum Dalzell 1850 non O. montanum Ten. 1810, Dipcadi montanum (Dalzell) Baker 1871]MGF04

Ornithogalum turbinatum var. madrasicum (Barnes & Fischer) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi madrasicum Barnes & Fischer 1941, D. montanum var. madrasicum (Barnes & Fischer) Deb & Dasgupta 1978]MGF04

Ornithogalum uitenhagense (Schönland) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004MGF04 [=*Neopatersonia uitenhagensis Schönland 1912EN20]

*Ornithogalum umbellatum Linné 1753EN20, MGF04, EN20 [=*Celsia umbellataEN20; incl. O. corymbosum Gaterau 1789MGF04]

Ornithogalum ursulae var. longiracemosum (Deb & Dasgupta) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Dipcadi ursulae var. longiracemosae Deb & Dasgupta 1975, D. ursulae var. longiracemosum]MGF04

Ornithogalum viridiflorum (Verd.) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Galtonia viridiflora Verd. 1955]MGF04

Ornithogalum weberlingiorum (Müll.-Doblies) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca weberlingiorum Müll.-Doblies 1995]MGF04

Ornithogalum wilsonii Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca corymbosa Baker 1886 non O. corymbosum Gaterau 1789]MGF04

Ornithogalum xanthocodon (Hilliard & Burtt) Manning & Goldblatt in Manning, Goldblatt & Fay 2004 [=Albuca xanthocodon Hilliard & Burtt 1985]MGF04

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

[EN20] Eggli, U., & R. Nyffeler (eds) 2020. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons 2nd ed. Springer.

[ERV99] Esler, K. J., P. W. Rundel & P. Vorster. 1999. Biogeography of prostrate-leaved geophytes in semi-arid South Africa: hypotheses on functionality. Plant Ecology 142 (1–2): 105–120.

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[H91] Hubálek, Z. 1991. Biogeographic indication of natural foci of tick-borne infections. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 255–260. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

Manning, J. C., F. Forest, D. S. Devey, M. F. Fay & P. Goldblatt. 2009. A molecular phylogeny and a revised classification of Ornithogaloideae (Hyacinthaceae) based on an analysis of four plastid DNA regions. Taxon 58 (1): 77–107.

[MGF04] Manning, J. C., P. Goldblatt & M. F. Fay. 2004. A revised generic synopsis of Hyacinthaceae in sub-Saharan Africa, based on molecular evidence, including new combinations and the new tribe Pseudoprospereae. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 60 (3): 533–568.

Martínez-Azorín, M., M. B. Crespo, A. Juan & M. F. Fay. 2011. Molecular phylogenetics of subfamily Ornithogaloideae (Hyacinthaceae) based on nuclear and plastid DNA regions, including a new taxonomic arrangement. Annals of Botany 107: 1–37.

Obermeyer, A. A. 1978. Ornithogalum: a revision of the southern African species. Bothalia 12 (3): 323–376.

[PT98] Panitsa, M., & D. Tzanoudakis. 1998. Contribution to the study of the Greek flora: flora and vegetation of the E Aegean islands Agathonisi and Pharmakonisi. Willdenowia 28: 95–116.

Van Jaarsveld, E. 2020. Ornithogalum. In: Eggli, U., & R. Nyffeler (eds) 2020. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons 2nd ed pp. 1281–1287. Springer.

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