Reconstruction of Yanornis martini, copyright Entelognathus.

Belongs within: Ornithothoraces.
Contains: Hesperornithes, Palaeognathae, Neognathae.

The Ornithurae are a clade of birds including all modern species together with related fossil forms possessing a very short pygostyle and completely fused tarsometatarsus (Zhou & Zhang 2005). Basal members of this clade include the famous toothed seabirds Ichthyornis and Hesperornis from the Late Cretaceous of North America. Ichthyornis anceps was a tern-like seabird with distinctive features including the presence of amphicoelous vertebrae (Clarke 2004). Clarke (2004) recognised a single species in this genus under the name I. dispar but the species name anceps has priority. Other species historically associated with Ichthyornis, including Guildavis tener, Apatornis celer and Iaceornis marshi, were suggested by Clarke (2004) to be closer to the Aves crown group.

The Hongshanornithidae are small, long-legged birds from the early Cretaceous of China. Yanornis was a contemporary genus of long-jawed birds with some specimens preserving fish remains in the stomach and crop. Apsaravis ukhaana was described from the late Cretaceous of Mongolia in more continental deposits than most other early Ornithurae (Norell & Clarke 2001).

The name ‘Aves’ is used here to refer to the crown group of birds. In recent years, a consensus has developed between most phylogenetic studies (both morphological and molecular) that the Palaeognathae (ratites and tinamous) are the sister group to the remaining birds in the Neognathae. Several fossil birds remain doubtfully placed within this framework. The Cimolopterygidae were a widespread family in the late Cretaceous that have often been interpreted as early shorebirds.

Synapomorphies (from Zhou & Zhang 2005): Pygostyle very short; coracoid strut-like with well-developed procoracoid process; furcula U-shaped; sternum elongate; major digit with first phalanx significantly laterally expanded, tightly abutted by reduced minor digit; tarsometatarsus completely fused.

<==Ornithurae [Carinatae, Ichthyornithiformes, Odontognathae, Odontoholomorphae, Odontornithes, Odontotormae, Plataleae]C04
    |    |--Hongshanornis Zhou & Zhang 2005ZZ05
    |    |    `--*H. longicresta Zhou & Zhang 2005ZZ05
    |    `--+--ParahongshanornisWSZ18
    |       `--+--LongicrusavisWSZ18
    |          `--+--TianyuornisESZ18
    |             `--ArchaeornithuraWSZ18
    `--+--Songlingornis linghensisWSZ18, ZBH03
          `--+--Yanornis Zhou & Zhang 2001WSZ18, D07
             |    |--Y. chaoyangensisZZ05
             |    `--Y. martiniD07
             `--+--Yixianornis grabauiWSZ18, ZZ05
                |--Apsaravis Norell & Clarke 2001WSZ18, NC01 [Apsaravidae, Apsaraviformes]
                |    `--*A. ukhaana Norell & Clarke 2001NC01
                |--Gansus Hou & Liu 1984WSZ18, P04 [Gansuidae]
                |    `--G. yumenensis Hou & Liu 1984P04
                |--Ichthyornis Marsh 1872WSZ18, C04 (see below for synonymy)
                |    `--I. anceps (Marsh 1872) (see below for synonymy)C04
                |--+--Patagopteryx Alvarenga & Bonaparte 1992WSZ18, P04 [Patagopterygidae, Patagopterygiformes]
                |  |    `--P. deferrariisi Alvarenga & Bonaparte 1992P04
                |  `--Vorona Forster, Chiappe et al. 1996WSZ18, P04
                |       `--V. berivotrensis Forster, Chiappe et al. 1996P04
                   `--+--Apatornis Marsh 1873 [Apatornithidae]C04
                      |    `--*A. celer Marsh 1873C04 [=Ichthyornis celerP04]
                      |--Iaceornis Clarke 2004C04
                      |    `--*I. marshi Clarke 2004C04
                      |--Guildavis Clarke 2004C04
                      |    `--*G. tener (Marsh 1880) [=Ichthyornis tener]C04
                      `--Aves [Cursores, Gallinae, Neornithes]C04
                           |  i. s.: ‘Dimorpha’ Hodgson 1841 nec Panzer 1806 nec Gray 1840C-S93
                           |         MalaciasS89
                           |           |--M. castanopterus Salvadori 1889S89
                           |           `--M. melanoleucusS89
                           |         PoliopsarS89
                           |           |--P. fuscogularis Salvadori 1889S89
                           |           `--P. nemoricola [=Sturnia nemoricola]S89
                           |         Trichostoma rubiginosa Walden 1875S89
                           |         Actinura ramsayi Walden 1875S89
                           |         Digenea cerviniventris Sharpe 1879S89
                           |         Lophospizias trivirgatus [=Astur trivirgatus]S89
                           |         Scelospizias poliopsisS89
                           |         Xantholaema haemacephalaS89
                           |         ChrysophlegmaS89
                           |           |--C. chlorolophum [=C. chlorolophus, Geclaus chlorolophus]S89
                           |           `--C. flavinuchaS89
                           |         Lepocestes pyrrhotis [=Venilia pyrrhotis]S89
                           |         RhopodytesS89
                           |           |--R. sumatranus [=Poliococcyx sumatranus]S89
                           |           `--R. tristisS89
                           |         Centrococcyx bengalensisS89
                           |         Entomobia smyrnensisS89
                           |         Dichoceros bicornisS89
                           |         Hydrornis oatesiS89
                           |         CryptolophaS89
                           |           |--C. bicolor Styan 1892L03
                           |           |--C. schwaneriS89
                           |           |--C. superciliarisS89
                           |           `--C. tephrocephalaS89
                           |         Muscicapula maculataS89
                           |         Stoparola melanopsS89
                           |         Volvocivora melanoptera [=Campophaga melanoptera]S89
                           |         Chaptia aeneaS89
                           |         Bhringa remiferS89
                           |         Chibia splendensS89
                           |         Dendrophila frontalisS89
                           |         Machlolophus spilonotusS89
                           |         AllotriusS89
                           |           |--A. intermediusS89
                           |           `--A. melanotis [=Ptererythrius melanotis]S89
                           |         Mesia argentaurisS89
                           |         SivaS89
                           |           |--S. cyanuropteraS89
                           |           `--S. sordidaS89
                           |         Staphidia striataS89
                           |         Timelia bengalensisS89
                           |         Dryonastes chinensisS89
                           |         Trochalopteron melanostigmaS89
                           |         LioptilaS89
                           |           |--L. melanoleucaB00
                           |           `--L. saturataS89
                           |         Suya superciliarisS89
                           |         Notodela leucura [=Myiomela leucura]S89
                           |         OreocinclaS89
                           |           |--O. daumaS89
                           |           `--O. lunulataN87
                           |         Oreicola ferreaS89
                           |         ArboricolaS89
                           |           |--A. brunneipectusS89
                           |           `--A. rufogularisS89
                           |         Iyngipicus pumilus [=Picus pumilus]S89
                           |         Nectarophila hasselti [=Cinnyris hasselti]S89
                           |         Cyrtostomus flammaxillaris [=Cinnyris flammaxillaris]S89
                           |         Cyanops ramsayiP89
                           |         Erythrosterna acornausBe66
                           |         Petrocossyphus cyaneusBe66
                           |         Chrysonotus intermediusBe66
                           |         CyanotisScl66
                           |           |--C. azaraeScl66
                           |           `--C. omnicolorScl66
                           |         NoctuaSch66
                           |           |--N. polleniSch66
                           |           `--N. sonneratiiSch66
                           |         Gervaisia Bonaparte 1854OF80
                           |           `--G. albispecularisSch66
                           |         OxynotusSch66
                           |           |--O. ferrugineusSch66
                           |           `--O. newtoniSch66
                           |         Hartlaubia madagascariensisSch66
                           |         Taccocua leschenaultiiBu66
                           |         ‘Heteromorpha’ Hodgson 1843 nec Hübner 1822 nec Kirby 1825NO08
                           |         Ardeacites Haushalter 1855M02
                           |           `--*A. molassicus Haushalter 1855M02
                           |         Chenornis Portis 1884M02
                           |           `--*C. graculoides Portis 1884M02
                           |         Miofulica Lambrecht 1933M02
                           |           `--*M. dejardini (Beneden 1871) [=Fulica dejardinii]M02
                           |         Ibidopodia Milne-Edwards 1871M02
                           |           `--*I. palustris Milne-Edwards 1871M02
                           |         Litoripes Harrison & Walker 1979M02
                           |           `--*L. medius Harrison & Walker 1979M02
                           |         Oligocathartes Harrison & Walker 1979M02
                           |           `--*O. olsoni Harrison & Walker 1979M02
                           |         OrnitholithesM02
                           |           |--O. bosniaskii Portis 1887M02
                           |           |--O. faujasi Omboni 1885M02
                           |           |--O. gabbrensis Portis 1887M02
                           |           |--O. procaccinii Portis 1887M02
                           |           `--O. tenuipennis Omboni 1885M02
                           |         Ornitholithus Dughi & Sirugue 1962M02
                           |           |--*O. biroi Dughi & Sirugue 1962M02
                           |           `--O. arcuatus Dughi & Sirugue 1962 (see below for synonymy)M02
                           |         Parvigyps Harrison & Walker 1977M02
                           |           `--*P. praevox Harrison & Walker 1977M02
                           |         Petropluvialis Harrison & Walker 1976M02
                           |           `--*P. simplex Harrison & Walker 1976M02
                           |         Pliogrus Lambrecht 1933M02
                           |           `--*P. germanicus Lambrecht 1933M02
                           |         Teracus Milne-Edwards 1871 [=Ieracus Aymard 1856 (n. n.)]M02
                           |           `--*T. littoralis Milne-Edwards 1871 [=Ieracus littoralis Aymard 1856 (n. n.)]M02
                           |         ‘Macropus’ Nuttall 1824 nec Shaw 1790 nec Latreille 1802 nec Thunberg 1805S61
                           |         Nyctalops Wagler 1832H11
                           |         Corvultur albicollisK08
                           |         Cranellus Tobias 1844KA-Z11
                           |         Tshulia Nessov 1988M07
                           |         CimolopterygidaeU93
                           |           |--Ceramornis major Brodkorb 1963U93
                           |           |--Palintropus Brodkorb 1970M07
                           |           |    `--P. retusus (Marsh 1892)U93
                           |           `--CimolopteryxC04
                           |                |--C. maxima Brodkorb 1963U93
                           |                |--C. minima Brodkorb 1963U93
                           |                |--C. rara Marsh 1889U93
                           |                `--C. retususC04
                           |         Plectophora Gray 1834LT61
                           |         AlcyoneR87a
                           |           |--A. azureaN87
                           |           `--A. pulchraR87a
                           |         MimetaCH89
                           |           |--M. affinisR87a
                           |           `--M. viridisCH89
                           |         DonacicolaR87b
                           |           |--D. castaneothoraxR87b
                           |           `--D. pectoralisR87a
                           |         StigmatopsR87a
                           |           |--S. ocularisR87a
                           |           `--S. subocularisR87a
                           |         Entomophila albogularis Gould 1842G42
                           |         PtistesR87a
                           |           |--P. coccineopterusR87a
                           |           `--P. erythropterusR87a
                           |         Stictopelia cuneataR87a
                           |         Amytis striatusR87b
                           |         SittellaR87b
                           |           |--S. chrysopteraR87b
                           |           `--S. tenuirostrisR87b
                           |         Baza subcristataN87
                           |         Calornis metallicaN87
                           |         Erythra quadristrigataN87
                           |         Gypoictinia melanosternonN87
                           |         Pteropodocys phasianellaN87
                           |         ‘Eurhynchus’ Berthold 1827 (nom. rej.) non Kirby in Kirby & Spence 1828Z94
                           |         Trachylaemus purpuratusPB27
                           |           |--T. p. purpuratusPB27
                           |           `--T. p. elgonensisPB27
                           |         Sturnopastor capensisF63
                           |         Uralia Mulsant & Verreaux 1866EH19
                           |         Camptolaimus labradoriusS05
                           |         Lagenoplastes arielCH89
                           |         Sauloprocta motacilloidesCH89
                           |         Corone australisCH89
                           |         Mesocalius palliolatusCH89
                           |         Euphema pulchellaCH89
                           |         PhoenicornisE42
                           |           |--P. brevirostrisV41
                           |           |--P. peregrinaE42
                           |           `--P. rubeculoidesE42
                           |         IanthocinclaE42
                           |           |--I. albogularisE42
                           |           |--I. canoraS42
                           |           |--I. erythrocephalaE42
                           |           |--I. leucocephalaE42
                           |           `--I. variegataV41
                           |         CollurioE42
                           |           |--C. erythronotusE42
                           |           |--C. lahtoraE42
                           |           `--C. smithii Fraser 1843F43a
                           |         Malacocercus striatusE42
                           |         PyrgitaE42
                           |           |--P. domesticaE42
                           |           |--P. montanaB42
                           |           `--P. rutilansS42
                           |         PlatyrhynchusF42
                           |           |--P. collarisF42
                           |           `--P. desmarestiiF42
                           |         Haematornis jocosusS42
                           |         Ispida bicinctaF43b
                           |         Chaetopus adansonii Swains. 1837F43b
                           |         LichenopsF43c
                           |           |--L. cyanirostris [=Fluvicola cyanirostris]F43c
                           |           `--L. perspicillata [incl. L. erythropterus]F43c
                           |         OpetiorhynchusF43c
                           |           |--O. nigrofumosusF43c
                           |           `--O. vulgarisF43c
                           |         Oxyurus dorsomaculatusF43c
                           |         Dendrodramus leucosternonF43c
                           |         ChrysometrisF43c
                           |           |--C. campestrisF43c
                           |           `--C. magellanicusF43c
                           |         Psittacara cheroyeus [incl. P. leptorhynchus]F43c
                           |         Nocthura perdicariaF43c
                           |         Oreophilus totanirostrisF43c
                           |         Erythrospiza githagineaD17
Ornithurae incertae sedis:
  Chaoyangia Hou & Zhang 1993P04
    `--C. beishanensis Hou & Zhang 1993P04
  Gargantuavis Buffetaut & Le Loeuff 1998P04
    `--G. philoinos Buffetaut & Le Loeuff 1998P04
  Horezmavis Nessov & Borkin 1983P04
    `--H. eocretacea Nessov & Borkin 1983P04
  Limenavis Clarke & Chiappe 2001P04
    `--L. patagonica Clarke & Chiappe 2001P04
  Qinornis paleocenica Xue 1995M09
  Liaoningornis Hou 1997ZZ05, P04
    `--L. longidigitus Hou 1997P04
  Ambiortus Kurochkin 1982 [Ambiortidae, Ambiortiformes]P04
    `--A. dementjevi Kurochkin 1982 [incl. Holbotia ponomarenkoi Kurochkin 1982]P04
Nomen nudum: Ornitholithes ralli Anonymous in Karg 1805M02

Ichthyornis Marsh 1872WSZ18, C04 [incl. Angelinornis Kashin 1972P04, Colonosaurus Marsh 1872P04; Ichthyornidae, Ichthyornithes, Ichthyornithidae]

Ichthyornis anceps (Marsh 1872) [=Graculavus anceps; incl. G. agilis Marsh 1873, Ichthyornis agilis, Plegadornis antecessor Wetmore 1962, Angelinornis antecessor, Ichthyornis antecessor, *I. dispar Marsh 1872, Colonosaurus mudgei Marsh 1872, I. validus Marsh 1880, I. victor Marsh 1876]C04

Ornitholithus arcuatus Dughi & Sirugue 1962 [incl. O. mammeatus Dughi & Sirugue 1962, O. mammillatus Dughi & Sirugue 1962, O. mammosus Dughi & Sirugue 1962]M02

*Type species of generic name indicated


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