Forewing of Oedischia williamsoni, from here.

Belongs within: Archaeorthoptera.
Contains: Bintoniellidae, Geraridae, Ensifera, Panelcanida, Pantcholmanvissiida.

The Orthoptera include the grasshoppers and allies, insects commonly characterised by the enlargement and modification of the hindlimbs for jumping. Many Orthoptera also have the forewings modified for noise production, though such structures are absent in basal fossil members of the clade and stridulatory structures and associated tympana have arisen independently in derived subgroups.

The earliest orthopterans (previously mostly classified as the paraphyletic ‘Oedischioidea’) are known from the Late Carboniferous, with the group becoming diverse in the Early Permian (Gorochov & Rasnitsyn 2002). The Late Carboniferous (Gzhelian) Oedischia williamsoni was found by Béthoux & Nel (2002) to form the sister taxon of all other Orthoptera together with the Geraridae; O. williamsoni already has well-developed jumping legs, suggesting that this feature was ancestral for the Orthoptera as a whole. The remaining ‘oedischioids’ were placed by Béthoux & Nel (2002) in the stem group to the modern Caelifera (short-horned grasshoppers) albeit with low support from largely homoplasic synapomorphies for basal members of this clade. Mesoedischia is a genus known from the Triassic of Kyrgyzstan, in which males have the posterior margin of the forewings bowed anteriorly at mid-length, and bearing a strong supplementary longitudinal vein between veins 1A and 2A. The Permian Mezenoedischiinae area have a series of bowed sigmoidal cross-veins between RA and RP, the area between MP and CuA+CuPaα narrower than the area between MP and MA/MA2 (at least in its basal two thirds), and CuA short basal of its fusion with CuPaα (Béthoux & Nel 2002).

Characters (from Béthoux & Nel 2002): Forewing with vein MA usually differentiated into MA1 and MA2; MA1 or MA generally fused with RP; MP simple, exceptionally with few distal branches, strongly concave; CuPaβ usually simple; CuPb simple; vein 1A simple. Metathoracic legs with broadened femora.

Orthoptera (see below for synonymy)
    |  `--Oedischia [Oedischiinae]BN02
    |       `--O. williamsoni Brongniart 1885BN02
       `--+--Mesoedischia Sharov 1968BN02, BNL02 [Mesoedischiidae, Mesoedischiinae]
          |    |--M. kirgizica Gorokhov 1987RJ93
          |    |--M. madygenia Sharov 1968BN02
          |    `--M. obliqua Gorokhov 1987BN02
          `--+--+--Suksunoedischia breviuscula Gorokhov 1987BN02
             |  `--+--Sylvoedischia Sharov 1968BN02
             |     |    |--S. crassa Gorokhov 1987BN02
             |     |    `--S. uralica Sharov 1968BN02
             |     `--+--Sojanoedischia sharovi Gorokhov 1987BN02
             |        `--Stenoedischia sylvensis Gorokhov 1987BN02
             `--+--Tshekardoedischia ancestralis Gorokhov 1987BN02
                   `--+--ParoedischiaBN02 [PruvostitidaeRJ93, Tettavidae]
                      |    `--P. recta Carpenter 1966BN02
                      `--+--+--Anhomalophlebia couloni Handlirsch 1919BN02
                         |  `--Kansasoedischia maculataBN02
                         `--+--Elcanoedischia Gorokhov 1987BN02
                            |    |--E. major Gorokhov 1987BN02
                            |    `--E. minor Gorokhov 1987BN02
                            `--+--Metoedischia Martynov 1928BN02, BNL02
                               |    `--M. magnifica Martynov 1928BN02
                                  `--+--Sharovoedischia aberrans (Sharov 1968)BN02
                                          |--Petrelcana elongata Carpenter 1966BN02
                                          `--+--Uraloedischia permiensis Sharov 1968BN02
                                             `--+--Iasvia reticulata Zalessky 1934BN02
                                                `--Mezenoedischia Gorokhov 1987BN02
                                                     |--M. maculosa Gorokhov 1987BN02
                                                     `--M. martynovi Gorokhov 1987BN02
Orthoptera incertae sedis:
  Agriacris trilineataFG01
  Ligurotettix coquilletiF01a
  Macrogryllus ephippiumF01b
  Phasmomimidae [Phasmomimoidea]GR02
    |--Paraphasmomima sharovi Zherikhin 1985RJ93
    `--Promastacoides albertaeRJ93
  Hesperotettix viridisSS96
  Circotettix verruculatusD37
  Myrmeleotettix maculatusGT00, TS04
  Pharmacus montanusO81
  Allonemobius sociusR96
  Dianemobius fascipesR96
    |--Gryllacrimima perfectaGR02
    `--Proparagryllacris crassifemur Riek 1956F71
  Acridella nasutaD95
    |--F. mauritanica Lucas 1846E12
    `--F. vicina Lucas 1846E12
  Sphaerium mauritanicum Lucas 1846E12
  Dictyophorus spumansI92
  Acripela reticulataI92
  Barbitistes constrictusK08
  Euthystira brachypteraK09
  Tropidostethus Philippi 1863S65
  Locustana pardalinaCS77
  Hyperomala virescens Serville in Boisduval 1835B35
  Endecous peruassuensis Bolfarini & Bichuette 2015P-GC17
  Bartitistes fischeriF92
  Aeropedellus variegatusF92
  Chrotogonius taranicusF92
    |--E. coerulipesF92
    `--E. tergestinusF92
  Pyrgodera armataF92
    |--H. littoralisPM09
    `--H. pterostichaF92
  Melanotmethis fuscipennisF92
  Mioscirtus wagneriF92
  Notostaurus albicornisF92
  Mesasippus kozhevnikoviF92
  Poecilocerus pictusF92
  Chrysochraon disparF92
  Condracris roseaC96
  Mesogramma [Mesogrammatidae]RJ93
    `--M. divaricata Hong 1985RJ93
  Xenogryllacris reductusRJ93
  Jurassobatea gryllacroidesRJ93
  Triassomanteidae [Triassomantidae]RJ93
    |--Triassomanteodes madygenicusRJ93
    `--Orichalcum ornatum Whalley 1985RJ93
    |--Vitimia Sharov 1968BN02
    `--Deinovitimia insoluta Gorokhov 1989RJ93
  Acacus Brunner 1907K18
  Cranae Stål 1878K18
  Eurycorypha variaR13
  Myrmegryllus dipterusR13
  Phylloscirtus macilentusR13
    |--E. durandiR13
    `--E. petersiR13
  Caloptenus italicusR13
  Stauronotus maroccanusR13
  Scudderia furcataSBM11
  Warramba virgoPN92
  Pristes tuberosusB00
  Platyphyllum regimbartiB00

Orthoptera [Acridii, Anelcanidae, Euorthoptera, Grillides, Grylliae, Gryllina, Oedischiidae, Oedischioidea, Oedischiidea, Parelcanidae, Saltatoria]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BNL02] Béthoux, O., A. Nel, J. Lapeyrie, G. Gand & J. Galtier. 2002. Raphogla rubra gen. n., sp. n., the oldest representative of the clade of modern Ensifera (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidea, Gryllidea). European Journal of Entomology 99: 111–116.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d’Urville. Faune entomologique de l’océan Pacifique, avec l’illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[B00] Bordage, E. 1900. On the absence of regeneration in the posterior limbs of the Orthoptera saltatoria and its probable causes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 234–236.

[C96] Chow, Y. S. 1996. Biology and life stages of Charletonia taiwanensis Tsai and Chow (Erythraeidae) in Taiwan. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 359–361. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[D95] Damerdji, A. 1995. Bio-écologie du peuplement des orthoptères de la région de Ghazaouet (Tlemcen, Algérie). Mésogée 54: 73–80.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F92] Fan Z. 1992. Key to the Common Flies of China 2nd ed. Science Press: Beijing.

[F01a] Field, L. H. 2001a. Aggression behaviour in New Zealand tree wetas. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 333–349. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[F01b] Field, L. H. 2001b. Sensory physiology. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 429–458. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[FG01] Field, L. H., & S. Glasgow. 2001. Defence behaviour. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 297–316. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GT00] Gorlov, I. P., & N. Tsurusaki. 2000. Morphology and meiotic/mitotic behavior of B chromosomes in a Japanese harvestman, Metagagrella tenuipes (Arachnida: Opiliones): no evidence for B accumulation mechanisms. Zoological Science 17: 349–355.

[GR02] Gorochov, A. V., & A. P. Rasnitsyn. 2002. Superorder Gryllidea Laicharting, 1781 (=Orthopteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 293–303. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K08] Köhler, G. 2008. Populationsstudien aus Gemeinen Grashüpfer, Chorthippus parallelus (Zetterstedt), entlang eines Höhengradienten im Mittleren Erzgebirge. Mauritiana 20 (2): 349–370.

[K09] Köhler, G. 2009. Heuschrecken (Saltatoria) und Ohrwürmner (Dermaptera) im Immissionsgebiet des Düngemittelwerkes Steudnitz/Thüringen—eine Langzeitstudie (1978–2001). Mauritiana 20 (3): 601–646.

[K18] Kury, A. B. 2018. Familial nomina in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Bionomina 13: 1–27.

[OF01] O’Brien, B., & L. H. Field. 2001. Morphology and anatomy of New Zealand wetas. In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 127–162. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[O81] O’Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[PN92] Palmer, S. C., & R. A. Norton. 1992. Genetic diversity in thelytokous oribatid mites (Acari; Acariformes: Desmonomata). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 20 (3): 219–231.

[P-GC17] Pérez-González, A., F. S. Ceccarelli, B. G. O. Monte, D. N. Proud, M. B. DaSilva & M. E. Bichuette. 2017. Light from dark: a relictual troglobite reveals a broader ancestral distribution for kimulid harvestmen (Opiliones: Laniatores: Kimulidae) in South America. PLoS One 12 (11): e0187919.

[PM09] Polidori, C., P. Mendiola, J. D. Asís, J. Tormos, M. D. García & J. Selfa. 2009. Predatory habits of the grasshopper-hunting wasp Stizus continuus (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae): diet preference, predatory-prey size relationships and foraging capacity. Journal of Natural History 43 (47–48): 2985–3000.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R96] Roff, D. A. 1996. The evolution of threshold traits in animals. Quarterly Review of Biology 71 (1): 3–35.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SS96] Simberloff, D., & P. Stilling. 1996. How risky is biological control? Ecology 77 (7): 1965–1974.

[S65] Smith, J. L. B. 1965. Fishes of the family Atherinidae of the Red Sea and the western Indian Ocean with a new freshwater genus and species from Madagascar. Ichthyological Bulletin 31: 601–632.

[SBM11] Solomon, E. P., L. R. Berg & D. W. Martin (eds) 2011. Biology 9th ed. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

[TS04] Tsurusaki, N., & T. Shimada. 2004. Geographic and seasonal variations of the number of B chromosomes and external morphology in Psathyropus tenuipes (Arachnida: Opiliones). Cytogenetic and Genome Research 106: 365–375.

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