Elephantnose fish Gnathonemus petersii, copyright Joachim S. Müller.

Belongs within: Osteoglossocephalai.

The Osteoglossiformes, bonytongues and allies, are a group of tropical freshwater fishes in which the bite is between the toothed tongue and the toothed roof of the mouth, rather than between the dentaries and the upper jaw as in most other fishes. An extension of the parasphenoid provides a support for the entopterygoid, and a pair of rod-like tendon bones is associated with the base of the second gill arch (Bond 1996). Many possess diverticula of the gas bladder that extend into the skull though these are absent in the Osteoglossoidei. The pirarucu Arapaima gigas of the Amazon River basin is one of the largest freshwater fishes, growing two metres or more in length.

    |  i. s.: Chandlerichthys strickeriG88
    |         Thaumaturus [Thaumaturidae]G88
    |         Kuntulunia [Huashiidae]P93
    |           `--K. longipterus Liu et al. 1982P93
    |         Ostariostoma [Ostariostomidae]P93
    |           `--O. wilseyi Schaeffer 1949P93
    |    |--Arapaimidae [Heterotidinae]B-RB13
    |    |    |--Arapaima gigasNE12
    |    |    |--Heterotis niloticusGM01, NE12
    |    |    `--Laeliichthys ancestralis Silva Santos 1985P93
    |    `--Osteoglossidae [Pantodontidae]P93
    |         |  i. s.: Pantodon buchholziIM04
    |         |         MusperiaP93
    |         |         PhareoidesP93
    |         |         Brychaetus caheni Taverne 1969P93
    |         |         OsteoglossidarumP93
    |         |           |--O. deccanensis Rana 1988P93
    |         |           `--O. intertrappus Rana 1988P93
    |         |--PhareodontinaeGM01
    |         |    |--PhareodusP93
    |         |    `--Phaerodusichthys Gayet 1991GM01
    |         |         `--P. taverni Gayet 1991GM01
    |         `--OsteoglossinaeGM01
    |              |--OsteoglossumIM04
    |              |    |--O. bicirrhosumIM04
    |              |    `--O. ferreiraiB96
    |              `--ScleropagesB96
    |                   |--S. formosusB96
    |                   |--S. jardiniB96
    |                   `--S. leichardtii Günther 1864M58
    |                        |--S. l. leichardtii [incl. S. l. jardinii Whitley 1943]M58
    |                        `--S. l. guntheriG75
    `--+--+--Palaeonotopterus greenwoodiNE12
       |  `--Notopteridae [Notopteroidea]B96
       |       |--Xenomystus nigriNE12
       |       |--PapyrocranusB96
       |       |--Notopteridarum nolfi Rana 1988P93
       |       |--NotopterusIM04
       |       |    |--N. chitalaIM04
       |       |    `--N. notopterus (Pallas 1769) [incl. N. primaevus Günther 1876]P93
       |       `--ChitalaB96
       |            |--C. chitalaNE12
       |            `--C. ornataNE12
            |--GymnarchusNE12 [GymnarchidaeB96]
            |    `--G. niloticusNE12
            `--Mormyridae [Mormyriformes]B96
                 |    |--M. discorhyncusCS77
                 |    |--M. nigricansB50
                 |    `--M. strappersiiCS77
                 |--Mormyrus Linnaeus 1758L58
                 |    |--M. anguilloides Linnaeus 1758L58
                 |    |--M. cyprinoides Linnaeus 1758L58
                 |    `--M. kannumeG74
                      |--G. abadii Boulenger 1901B01
                      |--G. greshoffiB01
                      |--G. macrolepidotusCS77
                      |--G. monteiriCS77
                      |--G. petersiiNE12
                      `--G. ussheriB01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B-RB13] Betancur-R., R., R. E. Broughton, E. O. Wiley, K. Carpenter, A. López, C. Li, N. I. Holcroft, D. Arcila, M. Sanciangco, J. C. Cureton, II, F. Zhang, T. Buser, M. A. Campbell, J. A. Ballesteros, A. Roa-Varon, S. Willis, W. C. Borden, T. Rowley, P. C. Reneau, D. J. Hough, G. Lu, T. Grande, G. Arratia & G. Ortí. 2013. The tree of life and a new classification of bony fishes. PLoS Currents Tree of Life April 18 2013. doi: 10.1371/currents.tol.53ba26640df0ccaee75bb165c8c26288.

[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[B01] Boulenger, G. A. 1901. Descriptions of four new African freshwater fishes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 80–82.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[GM01] Gayet, M., L. G. Marshall, T. Sempere, F. J. Meunier, H. Cappetta & J-C. Rage. 2001. Middle Maastrichtian vertebrates (fishes, amphibians, dinosaurs and other reptiles, mammals) from Pajcha Pata (Bolivia). Biostratigraphic, palaeoecologic and palaeobiostratigraphic implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 169: 39–68.

[G75] Grant, E. M. 1975. Guide to Fishes. The Co-ordinator-General’s Department: Brisbane (Australia).

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[G74] Greenwood, P. H. 1974. The cichlid fishes of Lake Vistoria, East Africa: the biology and evolution of a species flock. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Zoology Suppl. 6: 1–134.

[IM04] Inoue, J. G., M. Miya, K. Tsukamoto & M. Nishida. 2004. Mitogenomic evidence for the monophyly of elopomorph fishes (Teleostei) and the evolutionary origin of the leptocephalus larva. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 274–286.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M58] Munro, I. S. R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region: a check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel “Fairwind” during the years 1948 to 1950. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal 10 (4): 97–369 (reprinted: 1958. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin no. 1).

[NE12] Near, T. J., R. I. Eytan, A. Dornburg, K. L. Kuhn, J. A. Moore, M. P. Davis, P. C. Wainwright, M. Friedman & W. L. Smith. 2012. Resolution of ray-finned fish phylogeny and timing of diversification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (34): 13698–13703.

[P93] Patterson, C. 1993. Osteichthyes: Teleostei. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 621–656. Chapman & Hall: London.

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