Ostracoda

 Right view of Acanthoscapha bohemica, from Benson et al. (1961).

Belongs within: Oligostraca.
Contains: Paleodarwinula, Archaeocopida, Cypridinida, Halocypridida, Leperditicopida, Healdiocopina, Sigilliocopina, Cytherocopina, Darwinulocopina, Cypridocopina, Bairdiidae, Bythocypris, Palaeocopida, Platycopida.

The Ostracoda are a class of mostly aquatic (both freshwater and marine) crustaceans in which the body is enclosed within a bivalved, usually calcified carapace. Most ostracods are relatively small (1.5 mm or less) though there are some larger species. The body is short and laterally compressed, and lacks signs of external segmentation. There are four pairs of head appendages (the antennules, antennae, mandibles and maxillae), one to three pairs of thoracic appendages and a terminal pair of furcae/furcal rami (Benson et al. 1961). The antennae function as the primary locomotory organs.

Living ostracods are divided between the Myodocopomorpha, which generally have a distinct rostrum and rostral incisure, and the Podocopomorpha, in which the antenna is modified for walking rather than swimming. Plesiomorphic features retained by living myodocopomorphs include the presence of lateral eyes and a heart (Liebau 2005) with the loss of a heart in podocopomorphs probably being related to their reduction in body size. The podocopomorphs are uniformly calcified but myodocopomorphs may be weakly or not calcified. The earliest definite representatives of the ostracods are known from the Ordovician; earlier arthropod groups with bivalved but non-calcified carapaces, such as the Archaeocopida and Phosphatocopida, have commonly been assigned to the ostracods but their affinities remain debated (Liebau 2005).

Within the Podocopomorpha, the order Podocopida may be characterised by the presence of a ventral bow-shaped projection of the valve margin and a pair of valve stoppers (Liebau 2005). Living Podocopida may be united in the Podocopina by the presence of a carapace duplicature and few discrete muscle scars (Benson et al. 1961).

<==Ostracoda [Beyrichicopina, Kloedenellocopina, Ostrachoda, Ostracodoidea, Ostrapoda]
|--Myodocopomorpha [Entomidacea, Entomozoacea, Myodocopa, Myodocopida, Myodocopina]L05
| | i. s.: Skogsbergia lerneriRS10
| | Harbansus paucichelatusRS10
| | NasunarisLSE13
| | Deloris laevisA99
| | Cyprosina Jones 1881BB61 [CyprosinidaeWSB93]
| | `--*C. whidbornei Jones 1881BB61
| |--CypridinidaL05
| |--HalocyprididaL05
| `--LeperditicopidaL05
`--PodocopomorphaL05
|--Podocopida [Podocopa]HM04
| | i. s.: Abursus Loranger 1954BB61
| | `--*A. beaumontensus Loranger 1954BB61
| | Altha Neckaja 1958BB61
| | `--*A. modesta Neckaja 1958A03a
| | CalcaribeyrichiaJB12
| | LondiniaJB12
| | Risona [Rishonidae]WSB93
| | `--R. sarcinula Reynolds 1978WSB93
| | BalticelloideaL05
| | |--Balticella Thorslund 1940 [Balticellidae]BB61
| | | |--*B. oblonga Thorslund 1940BB61
| | | `--B. deckeriL05
| | `--Monoceratella Teichert 1937L05, BB61
| | `--*M. teres Teichert 1937BB61
| |--HealdiocopinaBB61
| `--PodocopinaHM04
| | i. s.: SigilliocopinaWSB93
| | PunctaparchitidaeB94
| | |--Punctaparchites Kay 1934BB61
| | | `--*P. rugosus (Jones 1858) [=Cytheropsis rugosus]BB61
| | `--Macrocyproides Spivey 1939B94
| | `--*M. clermontensis Spivey 1939BB61
| |--CytherocopinaL05
| `--+--+--DarwinulocopinaS61
| | `--CypridocopinaS61
| `--Bairdioidea [Bairdiacea, Bairdiocopina]S61
| | i. s.: Pseudophanasymmetria Sohn & Berdan 1952BB61
| | `--*P. foveata (van Veen 1936) [=Phanassymetria foveata]BB61
| |--BairdiidaeHM04
| |--BeecherellidaeBB61
| | |--Beecherella Ulrich 1891BB61
| | | `--*B. carinata Ulrich 1891BB61
| | |--Ulrichella Bouček 1936BB61
| | | `--*U. remesi Bouček 1936BB61
| | |--Rhysomagis Kesling, Kavary et al. 1959LH61
| | | `--*R. dichelomota Kesling, Kavary et al. 1959LH61
| | `--Platyrhomboides Harris 1957WSB93, BB61
| | |--*P. quadratus Harris 1957BB61
| | `--P. virginiensis Kraft 1962WSB93
| |--Acanthoscapha Ulrich & Bassler 1923BB61 [incl. Alanella Bouček 1936BB61; AlanellidaeL05]
| | |--*A. navicula (Ulrich 1891) [=Beecherella navicula]BB61
| | |--A. blessi Kozur 1989WSB93
| | `--A. bohemicaBB61
| `--BythocyprisL05
|--PalaeocopidaL05
`--PlatycopidaL05

Ostracoda incertae sedis:
Sarscypridopsis ochraceaM03, PH10
Mandocythere entremontensis [=Costacythere entremontensis]RR03
RehacythereisRR03
Tschernovia Samoilova in Samoilova & Smirnova 1972A03b
`--T. tabovensis Samoilova in Samoilova & Smirnova 1972A03b
Metavargula mazeriB88
Eocarinabeyrichia carinata Wang 1983WL04
Repandocypris austinensisTDC06
Trigonocypris globulosaTDC06
PaleodarwinulaTT05
PrasuchonellaTT05
|--P. belebeicaTT05
|--P. nasalisTT05
|--P. onegaTT05
|--P. stelmachoviTT05
`--P. tichvinskajaTT05
Garjainovula lijaTT05
Wjatkellina fragilinaTT05
Diasterope griseaHS01
Leuroleberis zelandicaHS01
Acanthocythereis dunelmensis (Norman 1865)G83
Tourconcha lapidiscola (Hartmann 1959)G83
KimsellaEL11
Sinocypris reticulataNG13
Sinometacypris dongyuemiaoensisNG13
Deeveya spiralisKIY04
Battus Dalman 1826 (preoc.)S61
NymphatelinaLSE13
Acrossula Kummerow 1953BB61
`--*A. u-scripta Kummerow 1953BB61
Ampuloides Polenova 1952BB61
`--*A. verrucosa Polenova 1952BB61
Ballardina Harris 1957BB61
`--*B. concentrica Harris 1957BB61
Craspedopyxion Jaanusson 1957BB61
`--*C. undulosum (Öpik 1937) [=Primitia undulosa]BB61
Hemiaechminoides Morris & Hill 1952BB61
`--*H. monospinosus Morris & Hill 1952BB61
Hupehella Hou 1955BB61
`--*H. lunata Hou 1955BB61
Parapyxion Jaanusson 1957BB61
`--*P. subovatum (Thorslund 1948) [=Primitia subovata]BB61
Pyxion Thorslund 1948BB61
`--*P. carinatum (Hadding 1913) [=Primitia carinata]BB61
Rectella Neckaja 1958 [=Mica Neckaja 1952 non Budde-Lund 1908]BB61
|--*R. inaequalis (Neckaja 1952) [=*Mica inaequalis]BB61
`--R. thomasi Schallreuter 1972B94
Antitomis Gürich 1896 (n. d.)BB61
`--*A. bisulcata Gürich 1896BB61
Bernix Jones 1884 (n. d.)BB61
`--*B. tatei (Jones 1864) [=Beyrichia tatei]BB61
Bohemia Skajdr 1951 (n. d.)BB61
Bryocypris Røen 1956 (n. d.)BB61
Budnianella Bouček 1936 (n. d.)BB61
`--*B. caroli Bouček 1936BB61
Caryon Barrande 1872 (n. d.)BB61
`--*C. bohemicum Barrande 1872BB61
Colpos Moberg 1895 (n. d.)BB61
`--*C. insignis Moberg 1895BB61
Ctenentoma Schmidt 1941 (n. d.)BB61
`--*C. umbonata (Steusloff 1894) [=Entomis umbonata]BB61
Cuselina Ammon in Reis, Schuster et al. 1910 (n. d.)BB61
`--*C. impressa Ammon in Reis, Schuster et al. 1910BB61
Cyclocytheridea Mandelstam in Lyubimova 1955 (n. d.)BB61
`--C. nordvikensis [=Camptocythere nordvikensis]BB61
Entomidella Jones 1873 (n. d.)BB61
`--*E. buprestris (Jones in Hicks 1872) (see below for synonymy)BB61
Gibba Fuchs 1920 (n. d.)BB61
`--*G. ‘spinosa’ (Fuchs 1920) [=Beyrichia (*Gibba) spinosa non Cytherina spinosa Hall 1852]BB61
Glyptolichwinella Posner in Samoilova 1951 (n. d.)BB61
Golcondella Croneis & Gale 1938 (n. d.)BB61
`--*G. sulcata Croneis & Gale 1938BB61
Huarpina Rusconi 1954 (n. d.)BB61
Isocythere Terquem 1885 (n. d.)BB61
`--*I. nova Terquem 1885BB61
Junctocytheretta Anonymous in Mandelstam et al. 1956BB61
`--*J. signata [=Eucytherura signata]BB61
Leioprimitia Kummerow 1939 (n. d.)BB61
`--*L. punctata Kummerow 1939BB61
Leptoprimita Kummerow 1953 (n. d.)BB61
`--*L. compressa Kummerow 1953BB61
Lichwinella Posner 1948 (n. d.)BB61
Monoculus Linnaeus 1758BB61
|--M. conchaceusBB61 [=Cypris conchaceaL02]
|--M. foliaceus Linnaeus 1758L58
|--M. lenticularis Linnaeus 1758L58
`--M. telemus Linnaeus 1758L58
Neochilina Matern 1929 (n. d.)BB61
`--*N. binsenbachensis Matern 1929BB61
Nezamyslia Přibyl 1955 (n. d.)BB61
Opisthoplax Kummerow 1943 (n. d.)BB61
`--*O. compressa Kummerow 1943BB61
Orthoconchoecia Granata & Caporiacco 1949 (n. d.)BB61
Pulvillites Öpik 1937 (n. d.)BB61
`--*P. triangulum Öpik 1937BB61
Quadricollina Öpik 1953 (n. d.)BB61
`--*Q. initialis Öpik 1953BB61
Russia Polenova 1952 (n. d.)BB61
`--*R. unicostata (Polenova 1952) [=Gravia (*Russia) unicostata]BB61
Sulcatia Polenova 1952 (n. d.)BB61
‘Synaphe’ Chapman 1914 (n. d.) nec Huebner 1789 nec Thomson 1864 nec Jones & Kirkby 1896BB61
`--*S. mesozoica Chapman 1914BB61
Tetrasulcata Matern 1929 (n. d.)BB61
`--*T. fluens Matern 1929BB61
Zonozoe Barrande 1872BB61
`--*Z. drabowiensis Barrande 1872BB61
‘Pseudocypris’ Herbst 1958 non Daday 1908LH61
`--*P. dietzi Herbst 1958LH61
Ostpreussensia Schallreuter 1993TM02
RabilimisYE77
|--R. mirabilis Brady 1874YE77
|--R. paramirabilis Swain 1963YE77
`--R. septentrionalis Brady 1868YE77
GoranellaJB12
OhesaarinaJB12
ArculicythereG12
|--A. defluxa Grékoff 1963G12
|--A. dubia Dingle 1984G12
|--A. kroemmelbeini Rosenfeld & Raab 1984G12
|--A. modica Grékoff 1963G12
|--A. semilunata Singh 1997G12
`--A. tumida Dingle 1971 [incl. Pseudobythocythere kallakkudiensis Jain 1976]G12
Fistulosacythere Lord et al. 2006G12
Bringocythere Lord et al. 2006G12
AitkenicythereG12
|--A. gracilis (Bate 1975)G12
`--A. striosulcata Dingle 1984G12
ProcytheruraG12
|--P. aerodynamica Bate 1975G12
|--P. amygdala Ballent & Whatley 2009G12
|--P. beerae Brenner & Oertli 1976G12
|--P. brenneri Valicenti & Stephens 1984G12
|--P. dinglei Brenner & Oertli 1976G12
|--P. kroemmelbeini Musacchio 1979G12
|--P. maculata Brenner & Oertli 1976G12
`--P. tintinnabulum Valicenti & Stephens 1984G12
Rostrocytheridea opisthorhynchus Ballent & Whatley 2007G12
Parahemingwayella dalzieli Dingle 1984G12
Collisarboris stanleyensis Dingle 1984G12
Pirileberis mkuzensis Dingle 1984G12
ArchaeocopidaWSB93
Harperopsis ohensis Schallreuter et al. 2000BT04
CymbicopiaPG98
|--C. hanseniPG98
`--C. hispidaPG98
Bathyleberis oculataPG98
Dolasterope johansoniPG98
Sinuocythere Colin et al. 2000CC02
`--S. candeeirosensis Cabral & Colin 2000CC02
Damonella Anderson 1966CC02
Fabanella Martin 1961CC02
Ektyphocythere Bate 1963CC02

*Entomidella buprestris (Jones in Hicks 1872) [=Entomis buprestris, Leperditia buprestris Salter in Hick 1865 (n. n.)]BB61

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[A03b] Adamczak, F. J. 2003b. The platycopine dynasty. 2. Family Cavellinidae Egorov, 1950. Authentic platycopines. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie—Abhandlungen 229 (3): 375–391.

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[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.

[RR03] Rossi, A., J. Rey, B. Andreu & K. Taj-Eddine. 2003. Apport des ostracodes à l’interprétation séquentielle du Crétacé inférieur (Berriasien–Valanginien) du bassin d’Essaouira-Agadir (Maroc). Comptes Rendus Palevol 2: 133–141.

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[YE77] Younker, J. L., & R. Ehrlich. 1977. Fourier biometrics: harmonic amplitudes as multivariate shape descriptors. Systematic Zoology 26 (3): 336–342.

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