Female Dilophus stigmaterus, copyright Bo Z.

Belongs within: Bibionomorpha.

The Pachyneuroidea are a group of flies in which the adult mandibles are absent, the antennal pedicel is slightly enlarged, and the base of wing vein M is oblique. Larvae have mandibles which move horizontally (Blagoderov et al. 2002).

Living members of this clade are divided between the Pachyneuridae, long-legged flies with larvae found boring in rotten wood (Wood 1981), and Bibionidae, rather hairy flies whose larvae are usually found in decaying organic matter (Hardy 1981). The Pachyneuridae include just four species found in the Holarctic region, three of which are united as the subfamily Cramptonomyiinae owing to the absence in larvae of a posterior thoracic spiracle (Wood 1981). Bibionidae are divided between four subfamilies with the Hesperininae characterised by long antennae with flagellomeres much longer than wide (Wood 1981). Bibioninae have vein Rs unbranched and the fore tibia bears either a large apical spine or an apical circlet of spines (Fitzgerald 2009).

| i. s.: AlinkidaeBLM02
| |--ParaxymiidaeGE05
| |--ProcramptonomyiaRJ93 [ProcramptonomyiidaeGE05]
| | `--P. sibirica Kovalev in Kalugina & Kovalev 1985RJ93
| `--+--ElliaBLM02 [ElliidaeGE05]
| | `--E. colorissimaBLM02
| `--PachyneuridaeGE05
| |--Pachyneura fasciataW81
| `--Cramptonomyiinae [Cramptonomyiidae]W81
| |--Cramptonomyia spenceriW81
| |--Pergratospes holopticaW81
| `--Haruka elegansW81
`--+--ArchipleciomimaRJ93 [ProtopleciidaeGE05]
| `--A. obtusipennisRJ93
`--Bibionidae [Bibionoidea, Penthetriidae]BLM02
|--Penthetria [Penthetriinae]F09
| |--P. heteropteraF09
| `--P. holosericeaH81 [=Bibio (Penthetria) holosericusG20]
|--Hesperininae [Hesperinidae]F09
| |--Longicornia Hong 2002H02
| | `--*L. tenuis Hong 2002H02
| `--Heperinus Walker 1848H02
| |--*H. renifrons Walker 1848H02
| |--H. brevifronsH81
| `--H. rohdendorfiH81
|--Pleciinae [Pleciidae]F09
| |--Clothonopsis miocenica Hong & Wang 1987R00, EG06
| |--Fushunoplecia Hong 2002H02
| | `--*F. eocenica Hong 2002H02
| `--PleciaF09
| |--P. americanaF09
| |--P. dimidiataCM91
| |--P. dorsalis Macq. 1838R01
| |--P. myersi Peterson 1975P92
| |--P. nearcticaF09
| |--P. ornaticornisZS10
| |--P. plagiataF09
| `--P. pristina Hardy 1971P92
|--Bibiodes aestivusF09
|--Enicoscolus collessiF09, CM91
| |--D. albipennisK01
| |--D. borealisF09
| |--D. espeletiaeF09
| |--D. femoralisK01
| |--D. matileiF09
| |--D. sayiF09
| |--D. stigmaterusF09
| `--D. vulgaris [=Bibio (Dilophus) vulgaris]G20
|--B. albipennisF96
|--B. autumnalis Fitzgerald 1996F96
|--B. curtipes James 1936 [incl. B. kansensis James 1936, B. melanopilosus Hardy 1936]F96
|--B. flukei Hardy 1937F96
|--B. fumipennis Walker 1848 (see below for synonymy)F96
|--B. hortulanus (Linnaeus 1758)G20, L58 [=Tipula hortulanaL02, Hirtea hortulanaL02]
|--B. imitatorCM91
|--B. johannisR13
|--B. longipesF09
|--B. marciA71
|--B. sereriH81
|--B. slossonaeF96
`--B. xanthopus [incl. B. humeralis]F96

Bibio fumipennis Walker 1848 [incl. B. inaequalis Loew 1864, B. macateei James 1936, B. simplicis Curran 1923]F96

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[EG06] Engel, M. S., & D. A. Grimaldi. 2006. The earliest webspinners (Insecta, Embiodea). American Museum Novitates 3514: 1–15.

[F96] Fitzgerald, S. J. 1996. Notes on Nearctic Bibio (Diptera: Bibionidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 50–54.

[F09] Fitzgerald, S. J. 2009. Bibionidae (March flies, love-bugs). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 245–251. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H81] Hardy, D. E. 1981. Bibionidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 217–222. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R01] Ricardo, G. 1901. Notes on Diptera from South Africa (concluded). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 89–110.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[R00] Ross, E. S. 2000. Embia: Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 149: 1–53, 1–36.

[W81] Wood, D. M. 1981. Pachyneuridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 213–216. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *