Palmatolepis

 Elements of apparatus of Palmatolepis minuta, from Donoghue (2001). Elements in adaxial view except S0 and P2 in caudad view.

Belongs within: Palmatolepididae.
Contains: Palmatolepis (Palmatolepis).

Palmatolepis is a genus of conodonts known from the Upper Devonian (Donoghue 2001) in which the platform elements of the apparatus are asymmetrical, commonly with a sigmoid axis and a large anterior lobe. In earlier members of the genus, sometimes treated as the subgenus Manticolepis, the axial carina of these elements is straight or only slightly sinuous (Sweet 1988).

Dzik (2002) proposed dividing this diverse genus between several segregate genera. However, Klapper et al. (2004) questioned whether relationships within the broader Palmatolepis were yet well enough understood for such a division.

Synapomorphies (from Donoghue 2001): P1 pastinate, lobe present, offset in dorsoventral axis. S0 caudal process absent; rostral process present; abaxial processes with rostral flexure immediately adjacent to cusp followed by caudally-directed recurvature of distal ends. S1 adaxial ‘lateral’ process present; rostral processes ‘posteriorly’ recurved. S2 vestigial ‘lateral’ process present. S3–4 ‘anterior’ process ventro-caudal. M ‘anterior’ process straight; basal margin recessive.

<==Palmatolepis Ulrich & Bassler 1926D02 (see below for synonymy)
    `--P. (Manticolepis Müller 1956)D02
         |--P. (M.) transitans Müller 1956M62, KU04
         `--+--P. punctata (Hinde 1879)S88, KU04
            `--+--P. (M.) proversa Ziegler 1958M62, S88, KU04
               `--+--+--P. (M.) foliacea Youngquist 1945M62, KU04
                  |     |--P. (M.) martenbergensisM62
                  |     `--+--P. (M.) coronataM62
                  |        `--P. (M.) unicornisM62, S88
                  `--+--P. (M.) hassi Müller & Müller 1957M62, KU04 [=Kielcelepis hassiD02]
                     `--+--P. gigas (Miller & Youngquist 1947)S88, D02 [=Manticolepis gigasD02]
                        |--P. (M.) linguiformis Müller 1956M62, KU04 [=Conditolepis linguiformisD02]
                        |--‘Manticolepis rhenana’ (Ziegler 1958) non Palmatolepis rhenana Bischoff 1956M62, D02
                        `--+--P. subgracilis Bischoff 1956 [=P. (Deflectolepis) subgracilis]D01
                           `--+--P. (Panderolepis Helms 1963)D01
                              |    |  i. s.: P. (P.) falcata (Helms 1959)D01
                              |    |         P. (P.) regularis Cooper 1931M62, KU04
                              |    |         P. (P.) rhomboidea Sannemann 1955M62, KU04
                              |    |--P. (P.) tenuipunctata Sannemann 1955M62, KU04
                              |    |--P. klapperiS88
                              |    `--+--P. (*P.) glabra Ulrich & Bassler 1926D02, M62, D02
                              |       |    |  i. s.: P. g. glabraKU04
                              |       |    |         P. g. unca (Sannemann 1955)KU04
                              |       |    |--P. g. acutaS88
                              |       |    |--P. g. leptaS88
                              |       |    |--P. g. prima Ziegler & Huddle 1969S88, KU04
                              |       |    `--+--P. g. distortaS88
                              |       |       `--P. g. pectinata Ziegler 1962S88, KU04 [=P. serrata pectinataM62]
                              |       |--P. (P.) elongataM62
                              |       `--P. (P.) serrataM62
                              `--+--P. minuta Branson & Mehl 1934D01 (see below for synonymy)
                                 |    |--P. m. minutaS88
                                 |    `--P. m. schleiziaS88 [=P. (Deflectolepis) schleiziaM62]
                                 |--+--P. (M.) winchelli Stauffer 1938D01 (see below for synonymy)
                                 |  `--+-- P. (M.) bogartensis (Stauffer 1938)D01 [=*Lagovilepis bogartensisD02]
                                 |     |--P. gracilis Branson & Mehl 1934D01 (see below for synonymy)
                                 |     |    |--P. g. gracilisS88
                                 |     |    |--P. g. deflectensM62
                                 |     |    |--P. g. expansaWH99
                                 |     |    |--P. g. gonioclymeniaeS88 [=P. (Deflectolepis) gonioclymeniaeM62]
                                 |     |    |--P. g. mancaS88
                                 |     |    `--P. g. sigmoidalis Ziegler 1962AS93
                                 |     `--+--P. (M.) quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann 1955D01 (see below for synonymy)
                                 |        `--P. (M.) subperlobata Branson & Mehl 1934M62, S88, KU04
                                 `--+--+--P. loba Helms 1963 [=P. (Deflectolepis) loba]D01
                                    |  `--P. (M.) muelleri Kapper & Foster 1993D01
                                    `--+--P. (M.) deliculata Branson & Mehl 1934D01
                                       |    |--P. d. deliculataKU04
                                       |    `--P. d. platys Ziegler & Sandberg 1990KU04
                                       `--+--P. (M.) triangularis Sannemann 1955M62, KU04 (see below for synonymy)
                                          |--P. (Palmatolepis)D01
                                          `--+--P. elegans [=P. (Panderolepis) elegans]M62
                                             |--P. marginifera Helms 1959S88, D02 (see below for synonymy)
                                             |    |--P. m. marginiferaKU04
                                             |    `--P. m. utahensis Ziegler & Sandberg 1984KU04
                                             `--P. quadrantinodosa Branson & Mehl 1934M62, KU04 (see below for synonymy)
                                                  |--P. q. quadrantinodosaS88
                                                  |--P. q. inflexa Müller 1956S88, KU04 [=P. (Panderolepis) inflexaM62]
                                                  `--P. q. inflexoideaS88
Palmatolepis incertae sedis:
  P. abnormis (Branson & Mehl 1934) (n. d.)KU04 [=Nothognathella abnormisKU04, Klapperilepis abnormisD02]
  P. adamantea Metzger 1994KU04
  P. angularis Klapper, Uyeno et al. 2004KU04
  P. angusta Klapper, Uyeno et al. 2004KU04
  P. boogaardi Klapper & Foster 1993KU04
  P. circularisS88
  P. clarkiOC97
  P. domanicensis Ovnatanova 1976KU04
  P. ederi Ziegler & Sandberg 1990KU04
  P. elegantula Wang & Ziegler 1983 [=P. minuta elegantula]KU04
  ‘Lagovilepis’ jamieae Ziegler & Sandberg 1990 [=Kielcelepis jamieae]D02
  P. juntianensis Han 1987 [=P. coronata juntianensis]KU04
  P. ljashenkoae Ovnatanova 1976KU04 [=*Kielcelepis ljashenkoaeD02]
  P. lobicornis Schülke 1995 [incl. P. subperlobata helmsi Ovnatanova 1976 non P. helmsi Ziegler 1962]KU04
  P. mucronata Klapper, Kuz’min & Ovnatanova 1996KU04
  P. mystica Klapper, Uyeno et al. 2004KU04
  P. nodosa Klapper, Uyeno et al. 2004KU04
  P. parva Klapper, Uyeno et al. 2004KU04
  P. plana Ziegler & Sandberg 1990KU04
  P. pooleiS88
  P. rhenana Bischoff 1956KU04
  ‘Klapperilepis’ sandbergi (Ji & Ziegler 1993)D02
  P. semichatovae Ovnatanova 1976KU04
  P. stoppeli Sandberg & Ziegler 1973KU04
  P. subtilis Khalymbadzha & Chernysheva 1978KU04
  P. ultima Ziegler 1958 [incl. P. praetriangularis Ziegler & Sandberg 1988, Klapperilepis praetriangularis]KU04
  *Gnamptognathus’ walliseri Ziegler 1958D02

Palmatolepis Ulrich & Bassler 1926D02 [incl. Conditolepis van den Boogard & Kuhry 1979D02, Deflectolepis Müller 1956D01, Gnamptognathus Ziegler 1958D02, Kielcelepis Dzik 2002D02, Klapperilepis Dzik 2002D02, Lagovilepis Dzik 2002D02, Ligonodinoides Stauffer 1938D02]

Palmatolepis gracilis Branson & Mehl 1934D01 [=P. (Deflectolepis) gracilisM62, P. (Tripodellus) gracilisD01]

Palmatolepis marginifera Helms 1959S88, D02 [=*Conditolepis marginiferaD02, P. (Panderolepis) marginiferaM62]

Palmatolepis minuta Branson & Mehl 1934D01 [=P. (Deflectolepis) minutaM62, P. (Tripodellus) minutaD01]

Palmatolepis quadrantinodosa Branson & Mehl 1934M62, KU04 [=P. (Panderolepis) quadrantinodosaM62]

Palmatolepis (Manticolepis) quadrantinodosalobata Sannemann 1955D01 [=Klapperilepis quadrantinodosolobataD02]

Palmatolepis (Manticolepis) triangularis Sannemann 1955M62, KU04 [=*Klapperilepis triangularisD02; incl. P. quadrantinodosalobata praeterita Schülke 1995KU04]

Palmatolepis (Manticolepis) winchelli Stauffer 1938D01 [incl. *Ligonodinoides ohioensis Stauffer 1938D02, Palmatolepis subrecta Miller & Youngquist 1947D02, *Manticolepis subrectaD02]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AS93] Aldridge, R. J., & M. P. Smith. 1993. Conodonta. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 563–572. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D01] Donoghue, P. C. J. 2001. Conodonts meet cladistics: recovering relationships and assessing the completeness of the conodont fossil record. Palaeontology 44 (1): 65–93.

[D02] Dzik, J. 2002. Emergence and collapse of the Frasnian conodont and ammonoid communities in the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47: 565–650.

[KU04] Klapper, G., T. T. Uyeno, D. K. Armstrong & P. G. Telford. 2004. Conodonts of the Williams Island and Long Rapids Formations (Upper Devonian, Frasnian–Famennian) of the Onakawana B Drillhole, Moose River Basin, northern Ontario, with a revision of the Lower Famennian species. Journal of Paleontology 78: 371–387.

[M62] Müller, K. J. 1962. Taxonomy, evolution, and ecology of conodonts. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea: Conodonts, Conoidal Shells of Uncertain Affinities, Worms, Trace Fossils and Problematica pp. W83–W91. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[OC97] Over, D. J., C. A. Conaway, D. J. Katz, W. D. Goodfellow & D. C. Gregoire. 1997. Platinum group element enrichments and possible chondritic Ru:Ir across across the Frasnian-Famennian boundary, western New York State. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 132: 399–410.

[S88] Sweet, W. C. 1988. The Conodonta: Morphology, taxonomy, paleoecology, and evolutionary history of a long extinct animal phylum. Clarendon Press: Oxford.

[WH99] Webster, G. D., D. J. Hafley, D. B. Blake & A. Glass. 1999. Crinoids and stelleroids (Echinodermata) from the Broken Rib Member, Dyer Formation (late Devonian, Famennian) of the White River Plateau, Colorado. Journal of Paleontology 73: 461–486.

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