Palpimanoidea

Defensive display between adult female (left) and juvenile Palpimanus gibbulus, from Líznarová et al. (2018).

Belongs within: Neocribellatae.
Contains: Micropholcommatidae, Archaeidae.

The Palpimanoidea is a clade of spiders characterised by the presence of cheliceral peg teeth, and (as recognised here) a strong reduction or loss of leg spination (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007). Many are specialised predators of other spiders and members of the Archaeidae and related families may have remarkably elongated chelicerae. The pan-tropical Palpimanidae have the first pair of legs distinctly enlarged and stronger than the remaining pairs (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

<==Palpimanoidea [Archaeoidea, Paurospinata]
    |--+--Huttonia Pickard-Cambridge 1879PVD10 [HuttoniidaeJD-S07]
    |  |    `--*H. palpimanoides Pickard-Cambridge 1879PVD10
    |  `--+--StenochilidaeJD-S07
    |     |    |--Colopea Simon 1893JD-S07
    |     |    |    `--C. malayanusJD-S07
    |     |    `--Stenochilus P.-Cambridge 1870 non Brown 1810 (ICBN)JD-S07
    |     |         |--S. crocatusJD-S07
    |     |         `--S. hobsoniJD-S07
    |     `--PalpimanidaeJD-S07
    |          |  i. s.: FernandezinaL-M-HM11
    |          |         DiaphorocellusJD-S07
    |          |         BoagriusJD-S07
    |          |         HybosidaJD-S07
    |          |         ScelidocteusR14
    |          |           |--S. lamotteiJD-S07
    |          |           `--S. vuattouxiR14
    |          |         Protochersis spinosus Gourret 1886S93
    |          |--ChediminaeJD-S07
    |          |--Otiothops [Otiothopinae]JD-S07
    |          |    `--O. walckenaeriJD-S07
    |          `--Palpimanus Dufour 1820 [Palpimaninae]JD-S07
    |               |--P. gibbulus (Dufour 1820)MG03
    |               |--P. schmitzi Kulczyński 1909MG03
    |               |--P. sogdianus Charitonov 1946MG03
    |               `--P. transvaalicusR14
    `--+--MicropholcommatidaeJD-S07
       `--+--Holarchaea Forster 1955PVD10 [HolarchaeidaeJD-S07]
          |    |--*H. novaeseelandia Forster 1955PVD10
          |    `--H. globosa (Hickman 1981) [=Zearchaea globosa]FF99
          `--+--PararchaeidaeJD-S07
             |    |--Forstrarchaea Rix 2006PVD10
             |    |    `--*F. rubra (Forster 1949)PVD10
             |    |--Ozarchaea Rix 2006PVD10
             |    |    `--O. forsteri Rix 2006PVD10
             |    `--Pararchaea Forster 1955PVD10
             |         |--*P. alba Forster 1955PVD10
             |         `--P. rubraFF99
             `--+--ArchaeidaeJD-S07
                `--MecysmaucheniidaeJD-S07
                     |  i. s.: Baltarchaea Eskov 1992SHR08
                     |           `--*B. conica (Koch & Berendt 1854) [=Archaea conica]SHR08
                     |--ZearchaeinaePVD10
                     |    |--Chilarchaea Forster & Platnick 19845JD-S07
                     |    `--Zearchaea Wilton 1946PVD10
                     |         |--*Z. clypeata Wilton 1946PVD10
                     |         `--Z. fiordensis Forster 1955PVD10
                     `--MecysmaucheniinaePVD10
                          |--Mecysmauchenioides Forster & Platnick 1984JD-S07
                          |--Mesarchaea Forster & Platnick 1984JD-S07
                          |--Semysmauchenius Forster & Platnick 1984JD-S07
                          |--Mecysmauchenius Simon 1884JD-S07
                          |    `--M. segmentatus Simon 1884FF99
                          `--Aoteroa Forster & Platnick 1984PVD10
                               `--*A. magna (Forster 1949)PVD10
Palpimanoidea incertae sedis:
  Sinaranea Selden, Huang & Ren 2008SHR08
    `--*S. metaxyostraca Selden, Huang & Ren 2008SHR08
  SpatiatoridaeSHR08
    |--Spatiator praeceps Petrunkevitch 1942S93
    `--AdoratorS93
         |--A. brevipes Petrunkevitch 1942S93
         `--A. samlandicus Petrunkevitch 1942S93
  LagonomegopsS02 [LagonomegopidaeSHR08]
    `--L. sukatchevae Eskov & Wunderlich 1994S02
  Arthrodictyna [Arthrodictynidae]S93
    `--A. segmentata Petrunkevitch 1942S93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[L-M-HM11] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., R. Marichal, D. F. Candiani, L. S. Carvalho, R. P. Indicatti, A. B. Bonaldo, D. H. R. Cobo, A. Feijoo M., S. Tselouiko, C. Praxedes, G. Brown, E. Velasquez, T. Decaëns, J. Oszwald, M. Martins & P. Lavelle. 2011. Impact of different land management on soil spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in two Amazonian areas of Brazil and Colombia. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 296–302.

[MG03] Marusik, Yu. M., & E. F. Guseinov. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 1. New family and genus records. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 29–46.

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S02] Selden, P. A. 2002. First British Mesozoic spider, from Cretaceous amber of the Isle of Wight, southern England. Palaeontology 45 (5): 973–983.

[SHR08] Selden, P. A., Huang D. & Ren D. 2008. Palpimanoid spiders from the Jurassic of China. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 306–321.

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