Pan-Gnetophyta

 Reconstruction of microsporangiate organs of Eucommiitheca hirsuta, from Friis & Pedersen (1996).

Belongs within: Spermatophyta.
Contains: Gnetophyta.

The Erdtmanithecales are a group of Cretaceous plants known from reproductive structures and seeds associated with Eucommiidites pollen; vegetative structures have not yet been identified for the group.

The Bennettitales were a group of superficially cycad-like plants that lived during the Mesozoic. Bennettitales had superficially flower-like reproductive structures, but debate continues on whether they were closely related to flowering plants.

<==Pan-Gnetophyta [Gnetopsida]CD07
    |--ErdtmanithecalesFC07
    |    |--Erdtmanispermum balticumFC07
    |    |--Erdtmanitheca texensisFC07
    |    |--Eucommiitheca hirsutaFC07
    |    |--Bayeritheca hughesiiFC07
    |    |--EucommiiditesFC07
    |    |    |--E. minor Groot & Penny 1960I02
    |    |    `--E. troedsonii Erdtmann 1948I02
    |    `--SpermatitesFC07
    |         |--S. pattensisFC07
    |         `--S. patuxensisFC07
    |--+--PiroconitesD98
    |  `--GnetalesFC07
    |       |  i. s.: Ephedrites Goeppert & Berendt in Berendt 1845KDD98
    |       |           `--E. sinensisKDD98
    |       |         GurvanellaZBH03
    |       |         Chaoyangia liangii Duan 1998ZBH03
    |       |         BaisianthusZ02
    |       |         Problematospermum ovaleRL09
    |       |         Leongathia Krassilov, Dilcher & Douglas 1998KDD98
    |       |           `--*L. elegans Krassilov, Dilcher & Douglas 1998KDD98
    |       |         EoanthaKDD98
    |       |         HeeralaKDD98
    |       |         Aegianthus sibiricumPL12
    |       |         Schilderia adamanica Daugherty 1934CA04
    |       |--Dechellyia gormanii Ash 1972D98, C93
    |       `--GnetophytaCD07
    `--BennettitalesFC07
         |  i. s.: Weltrichia regalisG10
         |         SturiellaZ02
         |         ZamitesGT02
         |         Vardekloeftia sulcata [incl. V. conica]FC07
         |         Cycadeoidella japonicaFC07
         |         WilliamsoniellaPL12
         |           |--W. coronataPL12
         |           `--W. karataviensisG10
         `--Bennettitaceae [Cycadeoidaceae, Williamsoniaceae]C93
              |--Bennettites crossospermusFC07
              |--Haitingeria krasseri (Schuster) Krasser 1919C93
              |--Leguminanthus siliquosus (Leuthardt) Kräusel & Schaarschmidt 1966C93
              |--Westersheimia pramelreuthensis Krasser 1919C93
              |--Sturianthus langeri Kräusel 1949C93
              |--Bennetticarpus wettsteinii (Krasser) Kräusel 1949C93
              |--Leuthardtia ovalis Kräusel & Schaarschmidt 1966C93
              |--Monanthesia magnifica Wieland ex Delevoryas 1959C93
              |--PterophyllumC93
              |    |--P. carbonicumG31
              |    `--P. nathorsti [=Dioonites nathorsti]T30
              |--WilliamsoniaFC07
              |    |--W. bockiiFC07
              |    |--W. himasFC07
              |    |--W. scoticaFC07
              |    `--W. sewardianaFC07
              `--CycadeoideaFC07
                   |--C. albiana [=Bennettites albianus]FC07
                   |--C. dacotensisFC07
                   |--C. dartoniFC07
                   |--C. gibsonianaFC07
                   |--C. maccafferyiFC07
                   `--C. morierei [=Williamsonia morierei, Bennettites morierei]FC07

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C93] Cleal, C. J. 1993. Gymnospermophyta. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 795–808. Chapman & Hall: London.

[CA04] Creber, G. T., & S. R. Ash. 2004. The Late Triassic Schilderia adamanica and Woodworthia arizonica trees of the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA. Palaeontology 47: 21–38.

[D98] Doyle, J. A. 1998. Phylogeny of vascular plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 567–599.

[FC07] Friis, E. M., P. R. Crane, K. R. Pedersen, S. Bengtson, P. C. J. Donoghue, G. W. Grimm & M. Stampanoni. 2007. Phase-contrast X-ray microtomography links Cretaceous seed with Gnetales and Bennettitales. Nature 450: 549–552.

[GT02] Gomez, B., F. Thévenard, M. Fantin & L. Guisberti. 2002. Late Cretaceous plants from the Bonarelli Level of the Venetian Alps, northeastern Italy. Cretaceous Research 23: 671–685.

[G10] Gordenko, N. V. 2010. Vladimariales ordo nov. (Gymnospermae) from the Middle Jurassic deposits of the Mikhailovskii rudnik locality (Kursk Region, European Russia). Paleontological Journal 44 (10): 1281–1307.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[I02] Ibrahim, M. I. A. 2002. Late Albian-Middle Cenomanian palynofacies and palynostratigraphy, Abu Gharadig-5 well, Western Desert, Egypt. Cretaceous Research 23: 775–788.

[KDD98] Krassilov, V. A., D. L. Dilcher & J. G. Douglas. 1998. New ephedroid plant from the Lower Cretaceous Koonwarra fossil bed, Victoria, Australia. Alcheringa 22 (2): 123–133.

[PL12] Peñalver, E., C. C. Labandeira, E. Barrón, X. Delclòs, P. Nel, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau & C. Soriano. 2012. Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (22): 8623–8628.

[RL09] Ren, D., C. C. Labandeira, J. A. Santiago-Blay, A. Rasnitsyn, C. Shih, A. Bashkuev, M. A. V. Logan, C. L. Hotton & D. Dilcher. 2009. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies. Science 326: 840–847.

[T30] Thomas, H. H. 1930. Further observations on the cuticle structure of Mesozoic cycadean fronds. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London 141: 5–7.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 331–388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[ZBH03] Zhou, Z., P. M. Barrett & J. Hilton. 2003. An exceptionally preserved Lower Cretaceous ecosystem. Nature 421: 807–814.

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