Arundinella nepalensis, copyright Harry Rose.

Belongs within: Poaceae.
Contains: Paniceae, Andropogoneae.

The Panicoideae are a clade of over 3200 species of grasses. It is one of the largest grass groups to possess the C4 photosynthetic pathway that is believed to be associated with adaptation for arid climates, though many species have reverted to the more standard C3 pathway. Most panicoids are also characterised by a loss of disarticulation above the glume except the basal genus Danthoniopsis (Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001).

Members of the genus Arundinella, found in many of the warmer regions of the world, have spikelets that become disarticulated at maturity below the upper fertile floret. In the genus Isachne, the mature spikelet disarticulates further down, above the glumes. In members of the tribe Maydeae, spikelets are all unisexual with male spikelets borne above female, either in the same or separate inflorescences (Gardner 1952). Corn or maize Zea mays is a major grain crop around the crop. Job’s tears Coix lacryma-jobi bears hard, pearly white pseudocarps that are used as ornamental beads.

Characters (from Grass Phylogeny Working Group 2001): Plants annual or perennial (rhizomatous, stoloniferous, caespitose or decumbent), primarily herbaceous, of the tropics and subtropics, but also diverse in the temperate zone. Culms solid or less commonly hollow. Leaves distichous; abaxial ligule usually absent, occasionally present as a line of hairs; adaxial ligule a fringed or unfringed membrane, or a fringe of hairs, or sometimes absent; blades relatively broad to narrow, sometimes pseudopetiolate, venation parallel; sheaths usually nonauriculate. Inflorescences panicles, racemes, or spikes, or complex combinations of these, bracts outside of the spikelets present (Andropogoneae) or absent (Paniceae). Spikelets bisexual or unisexual (if the latter plants dioecious or monoecious), frequently paired in combinations with long and short pedicels, usually with glumes 2, sterile lemma 1, and female-fertile floret 1, dorsally compressed or less commonly not compressed or laterally compressed, disarticulating below the glumes (above the glumes in Arundinelleae) or the inflorescence axes breaking apart; lemma lacking uncinate macrohairs, if awned, the awn single; palea well developed (Paniceae) or reduced to absent (Andropogoneae); lodicules 2 or sometimes absent, cuneate, free, fleshy, usually glabrous; stamens 3; ovary usually glabrous, apical appendage absent, haustorial synergids absent, styles 2, free or fused, close, stigmas 2 (rarely 1 or 3). Caryopsis with the hilum usually short; endosperm hard, without lipid, containing simple or less commonly compound starch grains; embryo usually large, epiblast absent or rarely present, scutellar cleft present, mesocotyl internode elongated, embryonic leaf margins overlapping or rarely meeting. Foliar mesophyll radiate or nonradiate, an adaxial palisade layer absent, fusoid cells absent except in Homolepis and Streptostachys, arm cells usually absent; Kranz anatomy present or absent; midrib simple or rarely complex; adaxial bulliform cells present. Foliar stomata with triangular or dome-shaped subsidiary cells; bicellular microhairs present, panicoid-type, rarely absent; papillae absent or present (mostly in the Andropogoneae).

<==Panicoideae [Andropogonoideae, Rottboellioideae, Saccharoideae]
    |    |--D. dinteriGPWG01
    |    `--D. petiolataGPWG01
          `--Arundinella Raddi 1823KC01 [ArundinelleaeGPWG01]
               |--A. ciliataS03
               |--A. holcoidesK72
               |--A. leptochloaS03
               |--A. (sect. Aeratherum) nepalensis Trin. 1836B78, G52 [incl. Aeratherum miliaceumB78]
               |--A. purpureaS03
               |    |--A. p. var. purpureaS03
               |    `--A. p. var. laxaS03
               `--A. setosaS03
Panicoideae incertae sedis:
  Isachne [Isachneae]GPWG01
    |--I. australis [incl. Panicum antipodum, P. atrovirens]B78
    |--I. bourneorumS03
    |--I. deccanensisS03
    |--I. disparS03
    |--I. elegansS03
    |--I. kunthianaSR07
    |--I. myosotis [=Panicum myosotis]B78
    |--I. oreadesS03
    |--I. rigidifoliaJ87
    `--I. walkeriS03
  Steyermarkochloa [Steyermarkochloeae]GPWG01
    |    |--C. giganteaC78
    |    `--C. lacryma-jobiMH98
    |    |--C. barbata [=Coix barbata; incl. Coix arundinacea (preoc.), Coix koenigii]B78
    |    |--C. cyathopoda (Muell.) Benth. 1878 [=Sclerachne cyathopoda]G52
    |    `--C. hubbardiana Henr. 1938G52
         |--Z. diploperennisW92
         `--Z. mays Linnaeus 1753CD07
              |--Z. m. ssp. maysGPWG01
              |--Z. m. ssp. mexicanaGPWG01
              `--Z. m. ssp. parviglumisKSM06

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B78] Bentham, G. 1878. Flora Australiensis: A description of the plants of the Australian Territory vol. 7. Roxburghiaceae to Filices. L. Reeve & Co.: London.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 1–11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[G52] Gardner, C. A. 1952. Flora of Western Australia vol. 1 pt 1. Gramineae. William H. Wyatt: Perth.

[GPWG01] Grass Phylogeny Working Group. 2001. Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88 (3): 373–457.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[K72] Krishnan, M. 1972. An ecological survey of the larger mammals of peninsular India (continued). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 297–351.

[MH98] Morikawa, H., A. Higaki, M. Nohno, M. Takahashi, M. Kamada, M. Nakata, G. Toyohara, Y. Okamura, K. Matsui, S. Kitani, K. Fujita, K. Irifune & N. Goshima. 1998. More than a 600-fold variation in nitrogen dioxide assimilation among 217 plant taxa. Plant, Cell and Environment 21: 180–190.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[S03] Singh, J. N. 2003. Grasses and their hydro-edaphic characteristics in the grassland habitat of Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 143–164.

[W92] Wilson, E. O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Harvard University Press: Belknap (USA).

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