New Zealand geoduck Panopea zelandica, photographed by Graham Bould.

Belongs within: Heterodonta.

Panopea, geoducks, are a genus of bivalves found from the Late Cretaceous to the present day in Europe, North America and the South Pacific. Representatives have a large, muscular siphon that is permanently extruded from the gaping shell. Some species are prized as food.

<==Panopea Ménard de la Groye 1807BRW98, S98 [=PanopeBRW98; incl. Capistrocardia Tate 1887BRW98]
    |--P. glycimeris (Born 1778)SB93 [=Mya glycymerisS98; incl. *P. aldrovandi Ménard de la Groye 1807S98]
    |--P. abrupta (Conrad 1849)TW07
    |--P. agnewiF27a
    |--P. angusta Nyst 1836F27b
    |--P. ‘angusta’ (d’Orbigny 1850) non Nyst 1836 [=Pleuromya angusta]F27b
    |--P. australis [incl. *Capistrocardia fragilis Tate 1887]BRW98
    |--P. awaterensisF27a
    |--P. bitruncataC66
    |--P. clausaF27a
    |--P. fragilis Gould 1861C64
    |--P. generosa Gould 1850C64, G77 [=Panope generosaC64; incl. Glycimeris estrellanusC64, Panopaea generosa var. sagrinataC64]
    |--P. hedleyi Finlay 1927 [=P. angusta Hedley 1915 nec Nyst 1836 nec Pleuromya angusta Agassiz 1845]F27b
    |--P. kalimnensisBRW98
    |--P. malvernensis Woods 1917 [=Panopea malvernensis]S98
    |--P. neozelanicaH86
    |--P. orbitaF27a
    |--P. plicataH79
    |--P. ralphi Finlay 1927F27a
    |--P. reflexaC64
    |--P. smithae Powell 1950P61
    |--P. thomasi von Ihering 1914S98
    |--P. worthingtoniF27a
    `--P. zelandica (Quoy & Gaimard 1835)P61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[C66] Clench, W. J. 1966. Panopea bitruncata (Conrad). Nautilus 80 (1): 36.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[G77] Goodwin, L. 1977. The effects of season on visual and photographic assessment of subtidal geoduck clam (Panope generosa Gould) populations. Veliger 20 (2): 155–158.

[H79] Haast, J. von. 1879. Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand. A report comprising the results of official explorations. “Times” Office: Christchurch.

[H86] Hutton, F. W. 1886. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[SB93] Skelton, P. W., & M. J. Benton. 1993. Mollusca: Rostroconchia, Scaphopoda and Bivalvia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 237–263. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S98] Stilwell, J. D. 1998. Late Cretaceous Mollusca from the Chatham Islands, New Zealand. Alcheringa 22 (1): 29–85.

[TW07] Taylor, J. D., S. T. Williams, E. A. Glover & P. Dyal. 2007. A molecular phylogeny of heterodont bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Heterodonta): new analyses of 18S and 28S rRNA genes. Zoologica Scripta 36 (6): 587–606.

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