Panorpoidea

Necrotaulius tener, from Grimaldi & Engel (2005).

Belongs within: Holometabola.
Contains: Permochoristidae, Mecopteroidea, Diptera, Lepidoptera, Trichoptera.

The Panorpoidea is a clade of insects including the flies, moths and related taxa. The basalmost division in the clade is between the Antliophora, including flies, scorpionflies and fleas, and the Amphiesmenoptera, including moths and caddisflies, with stem representatives of both lineages appearing in the Permian (Ren et al. 2009). Basal members of the Amphiesmenoptera included forms superficially similar to scorpionflies such as the Permian Protomeropidae. These were medium-sized insects with an elongate head and mandibles, probably carnivorous, that had elongate mid and hind coxae that were probably used in jumping (Ivanov & Sukatsheva 2002).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Muscle present connecting pleura and first axillary sclerite at base of wing. Hind wing with veins CuP and A1 basally fused. Ovipositor reduced or absent. Larval labium lacking palp muscles.

<==Panorpoidea [Panorpida, Papilionidea, Protomecoptera]
    |--Antliophora (see below for synonymy)RL09
    |    |--PermocentropusRJ93 [PermocentropidaeN02]
    |    |    `--P. philopotamoidesRJ93
    |    |--+--PermochoristidaeRL09
    |    |  `--+--SibiriothaumatidaeRL09
    |    |     `--Agetopanorpidae [Agetopanorpinae, Choristopsychidae]RL09
    |    |          |--Choristopsyche tenuinervis Martynov 1937RJ93, B11
    |    |          `--AgetopanorpaN02
    |    |               |--A. maculataRJ93
    |    |               `--A. permianaN02
    |    `--+--SylvopanorpinaeRL09
    |       `--+--PermopanorpidaeRL09
    |          |    |--Seniorita gratiosaN02
    |          |    |--Permopanorpa inaequalisGE05
    |          |    `--Neopermopanorpa mesembriaRJ93
    |          `--+--Belmontiidae [Parabelmontiidae]RL09
    |             |    |--Belmontia mitchelli Tillyard 1919F71
    |             |    `--Parabelmontia permiana Tillyard 1922F71
    |             `--+--MecopteroideaRL09
    |                `--+--Liassophilidae [Laurentipteridae, Pseudodipteridae]RL09
    |                   |    |--Ijapsyche sibiricaN02
    |                   |    |--LiassophilaN02
    |                   |    `--Laurentiptera gallicaGE05
    |                   `--+--DipteraRL09
    |                      `--PermotanyderusF71 [PermotanyderidaeRL09]
    |                           `--P. ableptus Riek 1953F71
    `--+--KaltanidaeRL09
       |    |--Moravochorista carolina Kukalová-Peck & Willmann 1989N02
       |    |--Pinnachorista sarbalensisR70
       |    `--AltajopanorpaN02
       |         |--A. iljinskiensisRJ93
       |         |--A. kaltanicaRJ93
       |         `--A. pilosaN02
       `--Amphiesmenoptera [Permotrichoptera, Protomeropina]GE05
            |  i. s.: MesotrichopteridiumIS02
            |         Cretotaulius ultimusIS02
            |         TrichopteridiumIS02
            |         ParatrichopteridiumIS02
            |--ProtomeropidaeIS02
            |    |--Pseudomerope gallei Kukalová-Peck & Willmann 1990RJ93
            |    |--Marimerobius [Marimerobiidae]IS02
            |    |    `--M. splendensRJ93
            |    |--Westphalomerope maryvonneae Nel et al. 2007IB11
            |    `--Permomerope [Permomeropidae]IS02
            |         |--P. australis Tillyard 1926F71
            |         |--P. nanus Riek 1923F71
            |         `--P. ramosaIS02
            `--+--Uraloptysma [Uraloptysmatidae]IS02
               |    `--U. maculataIS02
               |--MicroptysmatidaeGE05
               |    |--Microptysma sibiricumGE05
               |    |--Microptysmella moravica Kukalová-Peck & Willmann 1990RJ93
               |    |--Microptysmodes uralicusRJ93
               |    `--KamopanorpaIS02
               |         |--K. pritykinaeIS02
               |         `--K. rotundipennisIS02
               `--+--CladochoristidaeGE05
                  |    |--Cladochoristella bryaniRJ93
                  |    `--CladochoristaGE05
                  |         |--C. belmontensis Tillyard 1926F71
                  |         |--C. bryaniK-P91
                  |         `--C. multivenosaIS02
                  `--+--LepidopteraGE05
                     `--+--TrichopteraGE05
                        `--Necrotaulius [Necrotaulidae, Necrotauliidae]GE05
                             |--N. marginatusIS02
                             |--N. parvulus (Geinitz 1884)IS02
                             |--N. proximusIS02
                             |--N. stigmaticusIS02
                             |--N. tenerGE05
                             `--N. westwoodiIS02

Antliophora [Boreoidea, Mecaptera, Meropeoidea, Neomecoptera, Paramecoptera, Paratrichoptera, Protodiptera, Pseudopolycentropodoidea]GE05

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B11] Bashkuev, A. S. 2011. Nedubroviidae, a new family of Mecoptera: the first Paleozoic long-proboscid scorpionflies. Zootaxa 2895: 47–57.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[IB11] Ilger, J.-M., & C. Brauckmann. 2011. The smallest Neoptera (Baryshnyalidae fam. n.) from Hagen-Vorhalle (early Late Cretaceous: Namurian B; Germany). ZooKeys 130: 91–102.

[IS02] Ivanov, V. D., & I. D. Sukatsheva. 2002. Order Trichoptera Kirby, 1813. The caddisflies (=Phryganeida Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 199–220. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[N02] Novokshonov, V. G. 2002. Order Panorpida Latreille, 1802. The scorpionflies (=Mecaptera Packard, 1886, =Mecoptera Comstock et Comstock, 1895, +Neomecoptera Hinton, 1958, +Paratrichoptera Tillyard, 1919, +Paramecoptera Tillyard, 1919). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 194–199. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RL09] Ren, D., C. C. Labandeira, J. A. Santiago-Blay, A. Rasnitsyn, C. Shih, A. Bashkuev, M. A. V. Logan, C. L. Hotton & D. Dilcher. 2009. A probable pollination mode before angiosperms: Eurasian, long-proboscid scorpionflies. Science 326: 840–847.

[R70] Riek, E. F. 1970. Fossil history. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 168–186. Melbourne University Press.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

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