Blue Mountain butterfly Papilio ulysses, photographed by Gary Fortington.

Belongs within: Papilioninae.

Papilio is a cosmopolitan genus of butterflies including the swallowtails and related taxa. Over 200 species are currently recognised; a number of authors have attempted to divide Papilio into smaller genera but these systems have not become widely recognised. Some species are polymorphic with variant forms being mimics of other distasteful butterflies. Princeps is an Old World tropical subgenus of black and yellow species, often with metallic blue or green bands or patches.

Larvae usually feed on plants of the family Rutaceae and may sequester terpenoids from their diet to produce defensive secretions. The lime butterfly P. demoleus, widespread in the Old World and invasive in some parts of the New World, is a notable pest of citrus crops. Curiously, Australian populations of P. demoleus primarily feed on legumes of the genus Cullen and seem to show poor growth on citrus (Braby 200o). The common yellow swallowtail P. machaon, a widespread species across the Holarctic realm, is also exceptional in feeding on species of Apiaceae.

Papilio Linnaeus 1758B00a
|--P. (Papilio)G20
| |--P. (P.) hector Linnaeus 1758G20, L58 [=P. (Eques) hectorL58]
| |--P. (P.) machaon Linnaeus 1758G20, L58 [=P. (Eques) machaonL58]
| | |--P. m. machaonP93
| | |--P. m. bairdiiP93
| | |--P. ‘bairdi’ bruceiS72
| | `--P. m. oregoniusP93
| `--P. (P.) priamus Linnaeus 1758G20, L58 [=P. (Eques) priamusL58]
|--P. (Barbarus Linnaeus 1758)L58
| |--P. (B.) acastus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) amphion Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) ancaeus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) bates Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) ceneus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) cepheus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) eleus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) encedon Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) eribotes Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) hylas Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) idas Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) idmon Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) iphiclus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) ixilion Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) jason Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) mopsus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) nauplius Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) neleus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) pinthous Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) priassus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) telamon Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (B.) tiphus Linnaeus 1758L58
| `--P. (B.) zetes Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. (Eleppone) anactus Macleay 1826B00a
|--P. (Eques Linnaeus 1758)L58
| |--P. (E.) achilles Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) aeneas Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) agamemnon Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) agenor Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) ajax Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) anchises Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) antilochus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) deiphobus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) demophon Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) diomedes Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) eurypylus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) glaucus Linnaeus 1758L58 [=Pterourus glaucusP93]
| |--P. (E.) helena Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) helenus Linnaeus 1758L58
| | |--P. h. helenusTYM08
| | `--P. h. nicconicolens [incl. P. helenus nicconicolens ab. kiiensis Nakamura 1936]TYM08
| |--P. (E.) idomeneus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) leilus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) memnon Linnaeus 1758L58
| | |--P. m. memnonCh96
| | `--P. m. heronusCh96
| |--P. (E.) menelaus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) nestor Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) nireus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) pammon Linnaeus 1758L58 [incl. P. (E.) polytes Linnaeus 1758L58, P89, L58]
| |--P. (E.) pandarus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) panthous Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) paris Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) patroclus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) philoctetes Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) polydamas Linnaeus 1758FS54
| |--P. (E.) protesilaus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) pyrrhus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) sarpedon Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) stelenes Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) telemachus Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. (E.) teucer Linnaeus 1758L58
| `--P. (E.) troilus Linnaeus 1758L58
|--P. (Princeps)B00
| |--P. (P.) aegeus Donovan 1805B00a
| | |--P. a. aegeusB00a
| | `--P. a. ormenus Guérin-Méneville 1830B00a
| |--P. (P.) ambrax Boisduval 1832B00a
| | |--P. a. ambraxB00a
| | `--P. a. egipius Miskin 1876B00a
| |--P. (P.) demoleus Linnaeus 1758B00a [=P. (Eques) demoleus)L58]
| | |--P. d. demoleusB12
| | |--P. d. malayanusB00a
| | `--P. d. sthenelus Macleay 1826B12
| |--P. (P.) fuscus Goeze 1779B00a
| | |--P. f. fuscusB00a
| | |--P. f. canopus Westwood 1842B00a
| | |--P. f. capaneus Westwood 1843B00a
| | `--P. f. indicatus Butler 1876B00a
| `--P. (P.) ulysses Linnaeus 1758B00a [=P. (Eques) ulyssesL58]
| |--P. u. ulyssesB00a
| `--P. u. joesa Butler 1869B00a
`--P. (Zelima) pyladesG20

Papilio incertae sedis:
P. achatesL02
P. adippeL02
P. admetus Esper 1785B08
P. alexanorP93
P. amynthor Boisduval 1859 [incl. P. ilioneus Donovan 1805 (preoc.)]B00b
|--P. a. amynthorB00b
`--P. a. amphiaraus Felder & Felder 1864B00b
P. anchisiades Esper 1788S55
P. andraemonUSDI77
|--P. a. andraemonUSDI77
`--P. a. bonhoteiUSDI77
P. androgeus [incl. P. a. androgeus f. piranthus Cramer 1779]S55
P. arethususL02
P. argentusB66
P. aristodemusUSDI77
|--P. a. aristodemusUSDI77
`--P. a. ponceanusUSDI77
P. bianorTYM08
|--P. b. bianorTYM08
`--P. b. kawauchii Nakamura 1932TYM08
P. brevicaudaP93
P. brontesB01b
P. cadmusL02
P. castorL02
P. caudiusB66
P. ceresL02
P. ceronus Esper 1793B08
P. charitoniaL02
P. constantinusB01a
P. corinneusB01a
P. crisiaL02
P. dardanusCa96
P. dasaradaDS73
P. demetriusTYM08
|--P. d. demetriusTYM08
`--P. d. kariyai Nakamura 1934TYM08
P. demodocusB01c
P. demolion Cramer 1776BF08
P. diaL02
P. diphilusWM66
P. echerioidesB01b
P. epidaus Doubleday 1846FS54
P. erithoniusWM66
P. eurymedonS72
|--P. e. eurymedonS72
`--P. e. albanusS72
P. garleppi Staudinger 1892S55
P. homerusHT01
P. hospitonP93
P. hypsipyleL02
P. indraP93
|--P. i. indraS72
|--P. i. fordiS72
`--P. i. pergamusS72
P. jasiusL02
P. jatrophaeL02
P. joanaeP93
P. junoL02
P. laglaizeiDS73
P. laomediaL02
P. liomedonS72
P. macleayanusP27
P. meropeB01a
P. nicanorP89
P. nobilisB01c
P. passisfloraeL02
P. petreusL02
P. philolaus Boisduval 1836FS54
P. philonoeB01a
P. philoxenusDS73
P. photinus Doubleday 1844FS54
P. podaliriusL02
P. polyctorS72
P. polydorusS72
|--P. p. polydorusS72
`--P. p. queenslandicusS72
P. polyxenesP93
|--P. p. polyxenesFS54
`--P. p. stabilis Rothschild & Jordan 1906FS54
P. rhetenorDS73
P. rutulusS72
|--P. r. rutulusS72
`--P. r. arizonensisS72
P. saharaeP93
P. schmeltziPP02
P. thoas [incl. P. thoas var. cinyras Ménétriés 1857]S55
|--P. t. thoasFS54
|--P. t. autocles Rothschild & Jordan 1906FS54
`--P. t. nealces Rothschild & Jordan 1906FS54
P. torquatusB66
P. turnusO90
P. violaeL02
P. xuthusP01
P. zelicaonP93

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[B00a] Braby, M. F. 2000a. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 1. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B00b] Braby, M. F. 2000b. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[B66] Butler, A. G. 1866. Corrections and addenda to certain papers on Lepidoptera published during the years 1865–66; with additional notes on some of the species described. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 451–458.

[B01a] Butler, A. G. 1901a. An account of a collection of butterflies made by the Rev. K. St. Aubyn Rogers between Mombasa and the forests of Taveta. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 22–35.

[B01b] Butler, A. G. 1901b. An account of a collection of butterflies obtained by Lord Delamere, chiefly at Munisu, near Mount Kenya. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 197–203.

[B01c] Butler, A. G. 1901c. On a collection of butterflies from the Uganda Protectorate, forwarded by C. Steuart Betton, Esq., in 1900. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 562.

[Ca96] Campbell, N. A. 1996. Biology 4th ed. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.: Menlo Park (California).

[Ch96] Chow, Y. S. 1996. Biology and life stages of Charletonia taiwanensis Tsai and Chow (Erythraeidae) in Taiwan. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 359–361. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[FS54] Franz, E., & H. Schröder. 1954. Tagfalter (Lep. Rhopalocera) aus El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 35: 75–87.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[HT01] Hedges, S. B., & R. Thomas. 2001. At the lower size limit in amniote vertebrates: a new diminutive lizard from the West Indies. Caribbean Journal of Science 37 (3–4): 168–173.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[O90] Oberthür, C. 1890. Note suivante. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: ccxxxiv–ccxxxvi.

[PP02] Patrick, B., & H. Patrick. 2002. Butterflies of Fiji. Weta 24: 5–12.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721–746.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[P89] Poujade, G.-A. 1889. En montrant des Papilio. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: xlvii–xlviii.

[S55] Schröder, H. 1955. Eine Falter-Ausbeute aus dem westlichen Bolivien. (Ins. Lepid. Rhopal.) Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 329–338.

[S72] Shields, O. 1972. Flower visitation records for butterflies (Lepidoptera). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48 (3): 189–203.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[USDI77] United States Department of the Interior. 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

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