Papilionidae

Short-horned baronia Baronia brevicornis, copyright Fritz Geller-Grimm.

Belongs within: Obtectomera.
Contains: Teracolus, Papilioninae, Parnassiinae.

The Papilionidae, swallowtails, are a group of large butterflies characterised by the presence of an epiphysis on the fore tibia. The short-horned baronia Baronia brevicornis of Mexico is placed as its own subfamily as the sister taxon of all other living species (Silva-Brandão et al. 2005). This species develops on the boat-thorn acacia Vachellia cochliacantha. The fossil record of Papilionidae extends to Early Eocene where it is represented by two species of Praepapilio from the Green River formation of Colorado (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Characters (from Braby 2000): Adults large, boldly patterned, often with brilliant colours. Antennae relatively close together at base. Forewing with five-branched radial vein, R4 and R5 usually stalked, and two anal veins with 2A running freely to dorsum; hind wing with humeral vein present, single anal vein present, tornus often conspicuously tailed. Both sexes with six functional legs; fore tibia with epiphysis; tarsi with simple, well-developed apical claws. Egg almost spherical, usually smooth. Final instar larva stout, often bearing series of dorsal processes or spines that may be long and fleshy; thorax sometimes humped, always bearing eversible osmeterium; crochets of prolegs in biordinal or triordinal mesoseries. Pupa attached by cremaster, held upright by central girdle.

<==Papilionidae
|--Baronia [Baroniinae]S-BF05
| `--B. brevicornis Salvin 1893S-BF05
`--+--PapilioninaeS-BF05
`--ParnassiinaeS-BF05

Papilionidae incertae sedis:
BhutanitisGE05
PraepapilioGE05
|--P. coloradoGE05
`--P. gracilisGE05
IphiclidesAN-A04
|--I. ajaxRD77
`--I. podaliriusAN-A04
|--I. p. podaliriusAN-A04
`--I. p. feisthameliiAN-A04
Sericinus telamonP01
‘Thais’ Fabricius 1807 non Röding 1798P01, BR05
|--T. hypsipyleR26
|--T. medesicasteOO90
|--T. polyxenaP01
`--T. ruminaG20
Zerynthia polyxenaP93
TeracolusB01a
Glutophrissa contractaB01a
Herpaenia eriphiaB01a
EroniaE01b
|--E. dilatataB01a
|--E. ledaB01b
`--E. lucasiiO90
PinacopteryxB01b
|--P. astarteB01b
|--P. gerdaB01b
|--P. orbona [incl. P. larima]B01b
|--P. pigeaB01b
`--P. rubrobasalis [incl. P. vidua]B01b
Nychitona medusaB01b

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AN-A04] Askew, R. R., & J. L. Nieves-Aldrey. 2004. Further observations on Eupelminae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae) in the Iberian Peninsula and Canary Islands, including descriptions of new species. Graellsia 60 (1): 27–39.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1-2): 1-397.

[B01a] Butler, A. G. 1901a. An account of a collection of butterflies made by the Rev. K. St. Aubyn Rogers between Mombasa and the forests of Taveta. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 22–35.

[B01b] Butler, A. G. 1901b. An account of a collection of butterflies obtained by Lord Delamere, chiefly at Munisu, near Mount Kenya. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 197–203.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[O90] Oberthür, C. 1890. Note suivante. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: ccxli–ccxlii.

[OO90] Oberthür, C., & R. Oberthür. 1890. Lépidoptères dans les Pyrénées-Orientales. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 6e série 9: cc–cciii.

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[P93] Pittaway, A. R. 1993. The Hawkmoths of the Western Palaearctic. Harley Books: Colchester.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms’ General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[S-BF05] Silva-Brandão, K. L., A. V. L. Freitas, A. V. Z. Brower & V. N. Solferini. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of the New World Troidini swallowtails (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) based on COI, COII, and EF-1α genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 468–483.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *