Papilionoideae

 Hymenolobium mesoamericanum, copyright Rolando Pérez.

Belongs within: Leguminosae.
Contains: Dillwynia, Jacksonia, Dipterygeae, Amburaneae, Swartzieae, Exostyleae, Amorpheae, Dalbergieae, Luetzelburgia, Ormosieae, Brongniartieae, Leptolobieae, Sophoreae, Genisteae, Crotalarieae, Baphieae, Mirbelieae, Hologalegina, Indigofera, Millettieae, Diocleae, Kennediinae, Desmodieae, Mucuna, Cajaninae, Erythrininae, Phaseolinae, Glycine, Psoraleeae.

The Papilionoideae are a major clade within the Fabaceae/Leguminosae, alternatively recognised as the Fabaceae sensu stricto or Papilionaceae. Members of a number of genera within the Papilionoideae are significant food crops (such as Glycine, soybean, and Cicer arietinum, chickpea) whereas others are incorporated into pastures to enrich the soil through their nitrogen-fixing nodules (such as Trifolium, clover, and Lotus).

Members of the Papilionoideae are characterised by the presence of ‘pea’ flowers with petals differentiated into a standard, wings and keel. The degree of petal differentiation may differ between taxa and past classifications have differentiated between ‘advanced’ taxa, with higly differentiated flowers, and ‘primitive’ taxa with more radial flowers. However, more recent phylogenetic analyses have indicated that the so-called ‘primitive’ taxa are polyphyletic and do not form a coherent grouping (Cardoso et al. 2013). The majority of members of the group are herbaceous though some are shrubs or trees. These woody taxa include the more basally diverging subgroups, outside the so-called ’50-kb inversion clade’. This clade, including all papilionoids except the Angylocalyceae, Dipterygeae, Amburaneae, Swartzieae and a small clade of taxa related to Cladrastis, is characterised by a large inversion in the plastid genome.

The Angylocalyceae are a disjunctly distributed tropical group characterised by mostly ornithophilous flowers with the calyx and hypanthium enlarged, the petals thickened, the standard often distinctly large, the lower petals undifferentiated or reduced, and the stamens and gynoecium exserted. The Angocalyceae, Dipterygeae and Amburaneae form a morphologically diverse clade that is mostly supported by moecular data though some members of the Dipterygeae and Amburaneae do share features of resin production. The Cladrastis clade are a group of trees and shrubs with papilionate flowers, united by molecular data, that have a disjunct distribution in eastern Asia and southern North America (Cardoso et al. 2013).

Basal relationships within the 50-kb inversion clade are poorly resolved (Cardoso et al. 2013). Amphimas pterocarpoides, bokanga, is a West African species of tree used as a source of wood. Dermatophyllum, mescalbeans, is a genus of highly toxic shrubs and small trees bearing purple flowers in dense racemes, found in southern North America.

Characters (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): N-fixing common; isoflavonoids, prenylated flavonoids, pyrrolizidine, indolizidine, and quinolizidine alkaloids present; sieve tubes with spindle-shaped non-dispersive protein bodies; leaves once compound, palmate or pinnate; androecium with unidirectional [abaxial to adaxial] initiation, adaxial-median corolla external; androecium usually connate [e.g. 9 + 1]; pleurogram absent, linea fissura absent, hour-glass cells present, counter palisade present or absent, raphe shorter than the antiraphe, hilum with a hilar groove, tracheid bar [group of tracheids just below surface of hilum] present; embryo curved, with well-developed suspensor, radicle long, cotyledons accumbent, not investing radicle, cotyledon areole present; duplication of CYC gene.

Papilionoideae [Faboideae, Papilionaceae, Papilionatae, Phaseoleae]
    |--+--+--DipterygeaeCP13
    |  |  `--AmburaneaeCP13
    |  `--AngylocalyceaeCP13
    |       |  i. s.: UleanthusCP13
    |       |--+--Xanthocercis zambesiacaCP13
    |       |  `--Angylocalyx talbotiiCP13
    |       `--+--Castanospermum australeCP13
    |          `--AlexaCP13
    |               |--A. bauhiniifloraCP13
    |               |--A. canaracunensisCP13
    |               |--A. grandifloraCP13
    |               `--A. wachenheimiiCP13
    `--+--SwartzieaeCP13
       `--+--+--‘Cladrastis’ platycarpaCP13
          |  `--+--Pickeringia montanaCP13
          |     |    |--P. m. var. montanaCP13
          |     |    `--P. m. var. tomentosaCP13
          |     `--+--CladrastisCP13
          |        |    |--C. delavayiCP13
          |        |    |--C. kentukeaCP13
          |        |    `--C. luteaCP13
          |        `--StyphnolobiumCP13
          |             |--S. affineCP13
          |             |--S. japonicumCP13
          |             `--+--S. conzattiiCP13
          |                `--+--S. burseroidesCP13
          |                   `--S. monteviridisCP13
          `--+--Amphimas pterocarpoidesCP13
             |--ExostyleaeCP13
             |--+--AmorpheaeCP13
             |  `--DalbergieaeCP13
             |--DermatophyllumCP13
             |    |--D. arizonicumCP13
             |    `--D. secundiflorumCP13
             |--AldinaCP13
             |    |--A. insignisCP13
             |    `--+--A. heterophyllaCP13
             |       `--A. latifoliaCP13
             |--+--Sweetia fruticosaCP13
             |  |--VataireopsisCP13
             |  |    |--V. ararobaCP13
             |  |    |--V. speciosaCP13
             |  |    `--V. surinamensisCP13
             |  `--+--LuetzelburgiaCP13
             |     `--VataireaCP13
             |          |--+--V. heteropteraCP13
             |          |  `--V. macrocarpaCP13
             |          `--+--+--V. fuscaCP13
             |             |  `--V. lundeliiCP13
             |             `--+--V. erythrocarpaCP13
             |                |--V. guianensisCP13
             |                |--V. paraensisCP13
             |                `--V. sericeaCP13
             |--+--AndiraCP13
             |  |    |  i. s.: A. fraxinifoliaCP13
             |  |    |--A. carvalhoiCP13
             |  |    |--A. humilisCP13
             |  |    |--A. legalisCP13
             |  |    |--A. marauensisCP13
             |  |    `--+--A. inermisCP13
             |  |       `--+--A. galeottianaCP13
             |  |          `--A. ormosioidesCP13
             |  `--HymenolobiumCP13
             |       |--H. alagoanumCP13
             |       |--H. grazielanumCP13
             |       |--H. heringerianumCP13
             |       |--H. janeirenseCP13
             |       |--H. mesoamericanumCP13
             |       |--H. petraeumCP13
             |       `--+--H. heterocarpumCP13
             |          `--H. sericeumCP13
             |--+--OrmosieaeCP13
             |  `--+--‘Clathrotropis’ macrocarpaCP13
             |     `--+--BrongniartieaeCP13
             |        |--LeptolobieaeCP13
             |        `--+--Camoensia [Camoensieae]CP13
             |           |    |--C. brevicalyxCP13
             |           |    `--C. scandensCP13
             |           `--+--SophoreaeCP13
             |              `--+--+--GenisteaeCP13
             |                 |  `--CrotalarieaeCP13
             |                 `--Podalyrieae [Liparieae]CP13
             |                      |--Cadia purpureaCP13
             |                      |--Calpurnia aureaCP13
             |                      |--AmphithaleaCP13
             |                      |--CyclopiaCP13
             |                      |--LipariaCP13
             |                      |--Podalyria albaCP13, J23
             |                      |--StirtonanthusCP13
             |                      |--Virgilia oroboidesCP13, B00
             |                      `--XiphotecaCP13
             `--+--BaphieaeCP13
                `--+--+--MirbelieaeCP13
                   |  `--Hypocalyptus [Hypocalypteae]CP13
                   |       `--H. coluteoidesCP13
                   `--+--HologaleginaCP13
                      `--+--IndigofereaeCP13
                         |    |--Phylloxylon spinosaCP13
                         |    `--+--IndigoferaCP13
                         |       `--+--Microcharis karinensisCP13
                         |          `--CyamopsisCP13
                         |               |--C. senegalensisCP13
                         |               `--C. tetragonolobaZ94
                         `--+--+--Ostryocarpus ripariusCP13
                            |  `--+--Aganope thyrsifloraCP13
                            |     `--Xeroderris stuhlmanniiCP13
                            `--+--BarberieaeCP13
                               |    |--Dalbergiella nyasaeCP13
                               |    `--+--CentrosemaCP13
                               |       |    |--C. pubescensM99
                               |       |    `--C. sagittatumCP13
                               |       `--ClitoriaCP13
                               |            |--C. australisLK14
                               |            |--C. racemosaA96
                               |            |--C. rubiginosaBMM99
                               |            `--C. ternateaCP13
                               `--+--AustrosteenisiaCP13
                                  |    |--A. blackiiCP13
                                  |    `--A. glabristaWO95
                                  `--+--+--Disynstemon paullenoidesCP13
                                     |  `--+--Abrus [Abreae]CP13
                                     |     |    |--A. precatoriusCP13
                                     |     |    `--A. pulchellusSR07
                                     |     `--+--MillettieaeCP13
                                     |        `--DiocleaeCP13
                                     `--+--Platycyamus regnelliiCP13
                                        `--+--Kunstleria ridleyiCP13
                                           `--+--ApiosCP13
                                              |    |--A. americanaCP13
                                              |    `--A. tuberosaC55
                                              `--+--+--Shuteria vestitaCP13
                                                 |  `--KennediinaeCP13
                                                 |--+--DesmodieaeCP13
                                                 |  `--+--Craspedolobium schochiiCP13
                                                 |     `--MucunaCP13
                                                 `--+--+--CajaninaeCP13
                                                    |  `--ButeaCP13
                                                    |       |--B. frondosaZ94
                                                    |       |--B. monospermaCP13
                                                    |       |    |--B. m. var. monospermaS02
                                                    |       |    `--B. m. var. luteaS02
                                                    |       |--B. parvifloraP03
                                                    |       `--B. superbaP03
                                                    `--+--ErythrininaeCP13
                                                       `--+--+--Cologania pallidaCP13
                                                          |  `--PhaseolinaeCP13
                                                          `--+--+--Calopogonium mucunoidesCP13, BMM99
                                                             |  `--Pseudovigna argenteaCP13
                                                             |--+--Neorautanenia mitisCP13
                                                             |  `--Pachyrhizus erosusCP13
                                                             `--+--Neonotonia wightiiCP13
                                                                `--+--+--Amphicarpaea bracteataCP13
                                                                   |  `--+--Teramnus uncinatusCP13
                                                                   |     `--+--GlycineCP13
                                                                   |        `--PsoraleeaeCP13
                                                                   `--PuerariaCP13
                                                                        |--P. hirsutaAP80
                                                                        |--P. lobata (Willd.) Ohwi 1947SY72 (see below for synonymy)
                                                                        |--P. montanaCP13
                                                                        |--P. trilobaBMM99
                                                                        `--P. tuberosaSR07
Papilionoideae incertae sedis:
  EutaxiaG04
    |--E. microphyllaB00
    |--E. parvifoliaG04
    `--E. virgataGK00
  DillwyniaOS04
  ChorizemaOS04
    |--C. aciculareOS04
    |--C. ericifoliumK90
    |--C. ilicifoliumGK00
    `--C. nanumGK00
  JacksoniaOS04
  Nemcia obovataOS04
  BrachysemaGK00
    |--B. aphyllaK90
    |--B. daviesioidesK90
    |--B. macrocarpumK90
    |--B. melanopetalumGK00
    `--B. praemorsumGK00
  Callistachys lanceolataGK00
  OxylobiumGK00
    |--O. atropurpureumD84
    |--O. cordifoliumM89
    |--O. ellipticumKC83
    |--O. ilicifoliumM65
    |--O. lineareGK00
    `--O. trilobatumH87
  SphaerolobiumGK00
    |--S. drummondiiGK00
    |--S. linophyllumGK00
    |--S. macranthumGK00
    |--S. mediumGK00
    `--S. vimineumGK00
  Goodia lotifoliaGK00
  Viminaria junceaGK00
  Latrobea tenellaGK00
  Atylosia scarabaeoidesP03
  Maughania bracteataP03
  Pseudathria viscidaP03
  Sarothamnus scopariusH59
  NeoharmsiaCP13
  PericopsisCP13
  SakoanalaCP13
  Psoralidium lanceolatum [incl. Psoralea lanceolata ssp. scabra]H93
  Corallodendron Mill. 1754KC01
  Genistella Ortega 1773KC01
  Sterbeckia Schreb. 1789KC01
  Xerocarpus Guill., Perr. & Rich. 1832KC01
  Goniogyna DC. 1825 [incl. Heylandia DC. 1825]SY72
    `--G. hirta (Willd.) Ali 1967 [=Hallia hirta Willd. 1803; incl. Heylandia latebrosa DC. 1825]SY72
  Eleotis monophylla [incl. E. sororia]VS73
  Moghania paniculataVS73, M72
  SpatholobusA78
    |--S. bracteolatusFJ99
    |--S. gyrocarpusK03
    `--S. littoralisA78
Nomen nudum: Nemcia aspera Crisp in Obbens & Sage 2004OS04

Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi 1947SY72 [=Dolichos lobatus Willd. 1803SY72, P. montana var. lobataH06; incl. Pachyrrhizus thunbergianus Sieb. & Zucc. 1846SY72, Pueraria thunbergiana (Sieb. & Zucc.) Benth. 1865SY72]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

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[AP80] Andrews, K. L., & S. L. Poe. 1980. Spider mites of El Salvador, Central America (Acari: Tetranychidae). Florida Entomologist 63 (4): 502–505.

[A96] Antony, L. M. K. 1996. On the efficiency of extracting soil fauna from litter bags. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 671–676. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[BMM99] Braun, U., J. Mouchacca & E. H. C. McKenzie. 1999. Cercosporoid hyphomycetes from New Caledonia and some other South Pacific islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37: 297–327.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CP13] Cardoso, D., R. T. Pennington, L. P. de Queiroz, J. S. Boatwright, B.-E. Van Wyk, M. F. Wojciechowski & M. Lavin. 2013. Reconstructing the deep-branching relationships of the papilionoid legumes. South African Journal of Botany 89: 58–75.

[FJ99] Fiala, B., A. Jakob, U. Maschwitz & K. E. Linsenmair. 1999. Diversity, evolutionary specialization and geographic distribution of a mutualistic ant-plant complex: Macaranga and Crematogaster in South East Asia. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 66: 305–331.

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H87] Haviland, E. 1887. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1103–1104.

[H59] Healy, A. J. 1959. Contributions to a knowledge of the adventive flora of New Zealand, no. 7. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 113–118.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[J23] James, E. 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, performed in the years 1819 and ’20, by order of the Hon. J. C. Calhoun, sec’y of war: under the command of Major Stephen H. Long. From the notes of Major Long, Mr. T. Say, and other gentlemen of the exploring party vol. 1. H. C. Carey & I. Lea: Philadelphia.

[K90] Keighery, G. J. 1990. Vegetation and flora of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 61–87. Western Australian Museum.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[KC83] Körner, C., & P. Cochrane. 1983. Influence of plant physiognomy on leaf temperature on clear midsummer days in the Snowy Mountains, south-eastern Australia. Acta Œcologica Œcologiae Plantae 4 (2): 117–124.

[K03] Kulip, J. 2003. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia. Telopea 10 (1): 81–98.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[M89] Maiden, J. H. 1889. Notes on the geographical distribution of some New South Wales plants, compiled from information supplied by W. Bauerlen, and from some diagnoses by Baron von Mueller, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., &c. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 107–112.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[M72] Mitra, S. N. 1972. Observations on the vegetation of the Upper Damodar catchment area. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (1): 17–25.

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[P03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[SY72] Shah, G. L., & D. V. Yogi. 1972. Nomenclatural changes in some Bombay plants—IV. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (2): 444–449.

[S02] Sharma, S. K. 2002. Occurrence of Butea monosperma var. lutea (Witt.) Maheshwari in Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 547.

[VS73] Vyas, K. J., & G. L. Shah. 1973. Some interesting plants of Gujarat State. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 684–686.

[WO95] Walter, D. E., & D. J. O’Dowd. 1995. Life on the forest phylloplane: hairs, little houses, and myriad mites. In: M. D. Lowman, & N. M. Nadkarni (eds) Forest Canopies pp. 325–351. Academic Press, Inc.

[Z94] Zimmerman, E. C. 1994. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 2. Brentidae, Eurhynchidae, Apionidae and a chapter on immature stages by Brenda May. CSIRO Australia.

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