Colorised SEM of Trichomonas vaginalis, copyright Fickleandfreckled.

Belongs within: Metamonada.
Contains: Cristamonadida.

The Parabasalia are a group of often endobiotic flagellates, including parasitic species, as well as some free-living taxa (Adl et al. 2019).

Characters (from Adl et al. 2019): Cells with a parabasal apparatus—two or more striated parabasal fibres connecting the Golgi apparatus to the ciliary apparatus; kinetid ancestrally with four cilia/kinetosomes, but frequently with additional cilia (one to thousands); one kinetosome bears sigmoid fibres that connect to a pelta–axostyle complex; reduction or loss of the ciliary apparatus in some taxa,multiplication of complete or parts of the ciliary apparatus in other taxa; closed mitosis with an external spindle, including a conspicuous microtubular bundle; mitochondria transformed to acristate hydrogenosomes.

Parabasalia [Hypermastigida]
    |--Trichonymphida [Trichonymphea, Trichonymphina]BP01
    |    |--BarbulanymphaAS12
    |    |--HeliconymphaAB19
    |    |--LeptospironymphaAB19
    |    |--MacrospironymphaAB19
    |    |--PseudotrichonymphaAB19
    |    |--RhynchonymphaAB19
    |    |--Eucomonympha [Eucomonymphidae]AB19
    |    |--Teranympha [Teranymphidae]AB19
    |    |--Hoplonympha [Hoplonymphidae]AS12
    |    |--Staurojoenina [Staurojoeninidae]AB19
    |    |--UrinymphaAB19
    |    |--SpirotrichasomaM59 [SpirotrichosomidaeBP01]
    |    |    `--S. magnaM59
    |    `--Trichonympha [Trichonymphidae]AS12
    |         |--T. agilisDS01
    |         |--T. amplaMS98
    |         |--T. collarisOS03
    |         `--T. magnaHA01
    `--Trichomonadea [Tritrichomonadea]C-SC03
         |  i. s.: TricercomitusAS12
         |--Spirotrichonymphida [Spirotrichonymphina]C-SC03
         |    |--Spirotrichonympha [Spirotrichonymphidae]BP01
         |    |--Holomastigotoides [Holomastigotoididae]BP01
         |    |--Holomastigotes [Holomastigotidae]AS12
         |    |--MicrojoeniaAS12
         |    |--MicromastigotesAB19
         |    |--RostronymphaAB19
         |    |--SpiromastigotesAB19
         |    |--SpironymphaAB19
         |    |--SpirotrichonymphellaAB19
         |    `--UteronymphaAB19
               |    |  i. s.: Tritrichomonas foetusC-SC96, S03
               |    |         ParahistomonasAB19
               |    |         SimplicimonasAB19
               |    |--Dientamoeba [Dientamoebidae]AB19
               |    |    `--D. fragilisC-SC03
               |    `--MonocercomonadidaeMS98
               |         |--Monocercomonas ruminantiumAB19, WDE06
               |         `--Histomonas meleagridisMS98, RN72
                    |  i. s.: ProtrichomonasBP01
                    |         TrichomitopsisBP01
                    |           |--T. termopsidisN90
                    |           `--T. trypanoides [=Trichomonas trypanoides; incl. Trichomitus trypanoides]BP01
                    |         LacusteriaAB19
                    |         PentatrichomonasAB19
                    |         PentatrichomonoidesAB19
                    |         PseudotrypanosomaAB19
                    |         TetratrichomonasAB19
                    |         TrichomonoidesAB19
                    |         Pseudotrichomonas keiliniC-SC96, S03
                    |    |--CochlosomaAB19
                    |    `--CyathosomaC-SC96
                    `--Trichomonas [Trichomonadidae]C=SC96
                         |--T. foetusTKA90
                         |--T. gallinaeRN72
                         |--T. hepaticaRN72
                         |--T. hominisPHK96
                         |--T. intestinalisH04
                         |--T. tenaxHA01
                         `--T. vaginalisS03
Parabasalia incertae sedis:
  Hypotrichomonadida [Hypotrichomonadea]AB19
    |--Hypotrichomonas acostaAS12, SM03
    `--Trichomitus batrachorumAS12, SR02
    |--Ditrichomonas honigbergiC-SC96
    `--Monotrichomonas carabinaAB19, S03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[BP01] Brugerolle, G., & D. J. Patterson. 2001. Ultrastructure of Joenina pulchella Grassi, 1917 (Protista, Parabasalia), a reassessment of evolutionary trends in the parabasalids, and a new order Cristamonadida for devescovinid, calonymphid and lophomonad flagellates. Organisms Diversity and Evolution 1: 147–160.

[C-SC96] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E. Chao. 1996. Molecular phylogeny of the free-living archezoan Trepomonas agilis and the nature of the first eukaryote. Journal of Molecular Evolution 43: 551–562.

[DS01] Dacks, J. B., J. D. Silberman, A. G. B. Simpson, S. Moriya, T. Kudo, M. Ohkuma & R. J. Redfield. 2001. Oxymonads are closely related to the excavate taxon Trimastix. Molecular Biology and Evolution 18 (6): 1034–1044.

[HA01] Hackstein, J. H. P., A. Akhmanova, F. Voncken, A. van Hoek, T. van Alen, B. Boxma, S. Y. Moon-van der Staay, G. van der Staay, J. Leunissen, M. Huynen, J. Rosenberg & M. Veenhuis. 2001. Hydrogenosomes: convergent adaptations of mitochondria to anaerobic environments. Zoology 104: 290–302.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[MS98] Margulis, L., & K. V. Schwartz. 1998. Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth 3rd ed. W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[M59] Morgan, F. D. 1959. The ecology and external morphology of Stolotermes ruficeps Brauer (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae). Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 155–195.

[N90] Nutting, W. L. 1990. Insecta: Isoptera. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 997–1032. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[OS03] O’Kelly, C. J., J. D. Silberman, L. A. Amaral Zettler, T. A. Nerad & M. L. Sogin. 2003. Monopylocystis visvesvarai n. gen., n. sp. and Sawyeria marylandensis n. gen., n. sp.: two new amitochondrial heterolobosean amoebae from anoxic environments. Protist 154 (2): 281–290.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[RN72] Rutgers, A., & K. A. Norris (eds) 1972. Encyclopaedia of Aviculture vol. 1. London, Blandford Press.

[SM03] Saldarriaga, J. F., M. L. McEwan, N. M. Fast, F. J. R. Taylor & P. J. Keeling. 2003. Multiple protein phylogenies show that Oxyrrhis marina and Perkinsus marinus are early branches of the dinoflagellate lineage. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 355–365.

[S03] Simpson, A. G. B. 2003. Cytoskeletal organization, phylogenetic affinities and systematics in the contentious taxon Excavata (Eukaryota). International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 1759–1777.

[SR02] Simpson, A. G. B., A. J. Roger, J. D. Silberman, D. D. Leipe, V. P. Edgcomb, L. S. Jermiin, D. J. Patterson & M. L. Sogin. 2002. Evolutionary history of “early-diverging” eukaryotes: the excavate taxon Carpediemonas is a close relative of Giardia. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19 (10): 1782–1791.

[TKA90] Tibayrenc, M., F. Kjellberg & F. J. Ayala. 1990. A clonal theory of parasitic protozoa: the population structures of Entamoeba, Giardia, Leishmania, Naegleria, Plasmodium, Trichomonas, and Trypanosoma and their medical and taxonomical consequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 87: 2414–2418.

[WDE06] Walker, G., J. B. Dacks & T. M. Embley. 2006. Ultrastructural description of Breviata anathema n. gen., n. sp., the organism previously studied as “Mastigamoeba invertens”. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 53: 65–78.

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