Paranemastoma

Paranemastoma sp., from Axel L. Schönhofer.

Belongs within: Nemastomatidae.

Paranemastoma is a genus including some of the largest nemastomatid harvestmen, found in central and eastern Europe.

Characters (from Martens 1978): Male genital morphology with truncus penis long and extremely narrow, base widened, markedly separated from the rest of the trunk, but not angled; deeply divided, the two muscular strands concentrated in the two halves, glans in a straight extension of truncus, scarcely wider than latter, differentiated only by stronger sclerotization and tiny sensory bristles. Tip of glans divided into two branches, the right branch (in ventral view) narrower and slightly overarching the shorter and wider left branch. Scutum with para-median spine pairs, most developed on abdominal area II, weaker in female. Body always deep black, usually with gold or silver spotting.

<==Paranemastoma Redikorzev 1936 [incl. Buresiolla Kratochvíl 1958, Dromedostoma Kratochvíl 1958]S13
    |--*P. superbum Redikorzev 1936M11 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. aeginum (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma aeginum]S13
    |--P. amseli (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma amseli]S13
    |--P. amuelleri (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma amuelleri]S13
    |--P. ancae Avram 1973S13
    |--P. armatum (Kulczyński 1909) [=Nemastoma quadripunctatum armatum]N05
    |--P. aurigerum (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma aurigerum]S13
    |    |--P. a. aurigerumS13
    |    |--P. a. joannae Staręga 1976S13
    |    `--P. a. ryla (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma ryla, N. (Dromedostoma) ryla]S13
    |--P. aurosum (Koch 1869)N05 [=Nemastoma quadripunctatum aurosumN05, N. quadripunctatum var. aurosaD04]
    |--P. beroni Mitov 2011M11
    |--P. bicuspidatum (Koch 1835) (see below for synonymy)S13
    |--P. bolei (Hadži 1973) [=Nemastoma (Dromedostoma) bolei]S13
    |--P. brevipalpatum (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma brevipalpatum]S13
    |--P. bureschi (Roewer 1926) (see below for synonymy)S13
    |--P. caporiaccoi (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma caporiaccoi]S13
    |--P. carneluttii (Hadži 1973) [=Nemastoma carneluttii]S13
    |--P. corcyraeum (Roewer 1917) [=Nemastoma quadripunctatum corcyraeum]S13
    |--P. emigratum (Roewer 1959) [=Nemastoma emigratum]S13
    |--P. ferkeri (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma ferkeri]S13
    |--P. filipes (Roewer 1919) [=Nemastoma quadripunctatum var. filipes, N. (Dromedostoma) filipes]SCM18
    |--P. gostivarense (Hadži 1973) [=Nemastoma gostivarense]S13
    |--‘Crosbycus’ graecus Giltay 1932 (see below for synonymy)S13
    |--P. ikarium (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma ikarium]S13
    |--P. ios (Roewer 1917) [=Nemastoma quadripunctatum ios]S13
    |--P. iranicum Martens 2006M06
    |--P. kaestneri (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma kaestneri]S13
    |--P. kalischevskyi (Roewer 1951) (see below for synonymy)S13
    |--P. karolianum Çorak, Bayram et al. 2017 [=P. karolianus]KM20
    |--P. kochii (Nowicki 1870) (see below for synonymy)S13
    |--P. longipalpatum (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma longipalpatum]S13
    |--P. longipes (Schenkel 1947)N05 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. macedonicum (Hadži 1973) [=Nemastoma macedonicum]S13
    |--P. machadoi (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma machadoi]S13
    |--P. mackenseni (Roewer 1923) [=Nemastoma mackenseni]S13
    |--P. multisignatum (Hadži 1973) [=Nemastoma (Dromedostoma) multisignatum]S13
    |--P. ‘nigrum’ (Hadži 1973) [=Nemastoma nigrum non N. paspalevi var. nigrum Kratochvíl 1958]S13
    |--P. perfugium (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma perfugium]S13
    |--P. quadripunctatum (Perty 1833)M06 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. radewi (Roewer 1926) (see below for synonymy)S13
    |--P. roeweri Starega 1978 [=Nemastoma redikorzevi Roewer 1951 non Charitonov 1946, P. redikorzevi]S13
    |--P. santorinum (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma santorinum]S13
    |--P. senussium (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma senussium]S13
    |--P. sillii (Herman 1871) [=Nemastoma sillii]KM20
    |    |--P. s. silliiS13 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--P. ‘gigas’ montenegrinum Nosek 1904S13 [=Nemastoma gigas montenegrinumS13, N. g. montenegrina (l. c.)R23]
    |    `--P. s. monticola Babalean 2011S13
    |--P. sketi (Hadži 1973) [=Nemastoma (Dromedostoma) sketi]S13
    |--P. spinosulum (Koch 1869) [=Nemastoma spinosulum, N. spinulosum (l. c.)]S13
    |--P. thessalum (Simon 1885) [=Nemastoma quadripunctatum thessalum, P. teshalum (l. c.)]S13
    |--P. titaniacum (Roewer 1914)S13 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. umbo (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma umbo]M06
    `--P. werneri (Kulczyński 1903) [=Nemastoma quadripunctatum werneri, P. quadripunctatum werneri]S13

‘Crosbycus’ graecus Giltay 1932 [incl. Nemastoma simplex Giltay 1932 non N. bacilliferum simplex Simon 1913, Paranemastoma simplex]S13

Paranemastoma bicuspidatum (Koch 1835) [=Phalangium bicuspidatum, Nemastoma quadripunctatum bicuspidatum; incl. N. reimoseri Roewer 1951]S13

Paranemastoma bureschi (Roewer 1926) [=Nemastoma bureschi, Crosbycus bureschi, Paranemastoma (*Buresiolla) bureschi; incl. N. tunetanum Roewer 1951, B. tunetanum, B. tunetorum (l. c.)]S13

Paranemastoma kalischevskyi (Roewer 1951) [=Nemastoma kalischevskyi; incl. N. charitonovi Mcheidze 1952, Paranemastoma charitonovi, N. suchumium Roewer 1951, P. suchumium]S13

Paranemastoma kochii (Nowicki 1870) [=Nemastoma quadripunctatum kochii; incl. N. hungaricum Roewer 1951, N. nicaeum Roewer 1951]S13

Paranemastoma longipes (Schenkel 1947)N05 [=Nemastoma gigas longipesM00, N. (Dromedostoma) longipesN05; incl. N. tenue Hadži 1973S13]

Paranemastoma quadripunctatum (Perty 1833)M06 [=Phalangium quadripunctatumD04, Nemastoma quadripunctatumN05; incl. N. alfkeni Roewer 1951D04, Paranemastoma alfekiD04, N. armeniacum Roewer 1951S13, P. armeniacumM06, N. austriacum Roewer 1951D04, N. quadripunctatum carniolicum Hadži 1973D04, N. chaucicum Roewer 1951D04, Paranemastoma chaucicumD04, N. emonense Hadži 1973D04, Phalangium flavimanum Koch 1835K35, Nemastoma flavimanumD04, Opilio flavimanumD04, N. gertschi Roewer 1951D04, Paranemastoma gertschiD04, Crosbycus lengersdorfi Roewer 1951D04, Nemastoma quadripunctatum var. lessinensis Caporiacco 1940S13, N. mediosignatum Hadži 1973D04, N. quadripunctatum var. moesiacum Roewer 1917S13, Paranemastoma moesiacumN05, N. nervosum Roewer 1923S13, N. slovenicum Hadži 1973D04, N. (Dromedostoma) strasseri Roewer 1951N05, N. triglavense Hadži 1973D04]

Paranemastoma radewi (Roewer 1926) [=Nemastoma radewi S13, N. (*Dromedostoma) radewi S13, N. radevi (l. c.), Paranemastoma radevi; incl. N. (D.) atanasovi Kratochvíl 1958, P. atanasovi, N. (D.) atanasovi balcanica Kratochvíl 1958, N. insulare Roewer 1951, N. (D.) markovi Kratochvíl 1958, N. (D.) megarae Hadži 1973, N. (D.) paspalevi var. nigrum Kratochvíl 1958, N. (D.) paspalevi Kratochvíl 1958, Paranemastoma paspalevi, N. polonicum Roewer 1951, N. riparium Roewer 1951, n. schenkeli Roewer 1951]S13

Paranemastoma sillii sillii (Herman 1871)S13 [=Nemastoma quadripunctatum silliiS13; incl. N. bishopi Roewer 1951S13, N. bulgaricum Roewer 1951S13, N. carpathicum Roewer 1951S13, Crosbycus cavernae Roewer 1951S13, N. gigas Sørensen in Lendl 1894S13, N. sillii gigasR23, Paranemastoma gigasS13, N. lineatum Sørensen in Lendl 1894S13, N. quadripunctatum lineatumR23, N. mohilevum Roewer 1951S13, N. politum Roewer 1951S13, N. romanium Roewer 1951S13, N. rumanicum (l. c.)S13, N. rumelium Roewer 1951S13, N. wiehlei Roewer 1951S13, N. zilchi Roewer 1951S13]

*Paranemastoma superbum Redikorzev 1936 non Nemastoma superbum Koch 1869M11 [=P. supersum Roewer 1951M06, Nemastoma supersumM06; incl. N. superbum bacuriana Mcheidze 1959M06, N. superbum bacurianumM06]

Paranemastoma titaniacum (Roewer 1914)S13 [=Nemastoma quadripunctatum titaniacumN05, N. (Dromedostoma) titaniacumS13; incl. N. acrospinosum Roewer 1951S13, N. bimaculosum Roewer 1951S13, Paranemastoma bimaculosumN05, N. bipunctatum Hadži 1973S13, N. (D.) grabrovicae Hadži 1973N05, N. gabbrovicae (l. c.)N05, N. acrospinosum pretneri Hadži 1973S13]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[D04] Delfosse, E. 2004. Catalogue préliminaire des Opilions de France métropolitaine (Arachnida Opiliones). Bulletin de Phyllie 20: 34–58.

[K35] Koch, C. L. 1835. Arachniden. In: Herrich-Schäffer, G. A. W. Deutschlands Insecten vol. 34 pts 128–133. F. Pustet: Regensburg.

[KM20] Kury, A. B., A. C. Mendes, L. Cardoso, M. S. Kury & A. A. Granado. 2020. WCO-Lite: Online world catalogue of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Version 1.0—Checklist of all valid nomina in Opiliones with authors and dates of publication up to 2018. Published by the author: Rio de Janeiro.

[M06] Martens, J. 2006. Weberknechte aus dem Kaukasus (Arachnida, Opiliones, Nemastomatidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 145–210.

[M00] Mitov, P. 2000. Contribution to the knowledge of the harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) of Albania. Ekológia 19 (Suppl. 3): 159–169.

[M11] Mitov, P. G. 2011. A new anophthalmous species of Paranemastoma from Bulgaria (Opiliones: Nemastomatidae). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 303–319.

[N05] Novak, T. 2005. An overview of harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Natura Croatica 14 (4): 301–350.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[S13] Schönhofer, A. L. 2013. A taxonomic catalogue of the Dyspnoi Hansen and Sørensen, 1904 (Arachnida: Opiliones). Zootaxa 3679 (1): 1–68.

[SCM18] Snegovaya, N. Y., J. C. Cokendolpher & F. Mozaffarian. 2018. The Opiliones of Iran with a description of a new genus and two new species. Journal of Arachnology 46 (1): 69–80.

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