Parareptilia

Reconstruction of Milleretta rubidgei, copyright Nobu Tamura.

Belongs within: Reptilia.
Contains: Procolophonia.

The Parareptilia are a clade corresponding to the greater part of the previously recognised ‘Anapsida’ group of reptiles lacking a temporal fenestra in the skull. They are known from the Upper Permian and Triassic; their survival after this time depends on whether the modern turtles belong to this lineage.

<==Parareptilia [Nycteroleteromorpha]MA04
    |--Millerettidae [Millerosauroidea]MD07
    |    |--MilleropsisLR95
    |    |--MillerosaurusLR95
    |    |--HeleophilusLR95
    |    |--Broomia perplexa Watson 1914B93
    |    `--Milleretta Watson 1957D07
    |         `--M. rubidgei Broom 1938B93
    `--+--+--+--Acleistorhinus Daly 1969SS15, D07 [Acleistorhinidae]
       |  |  |    `--A. pteroticus Daly 1969B93
       |  |  `--+--Colobomycter pholeterLF18, M06
       |  |     `--FeeserpetonLF18
       |  `--Lanthanosuchidae [Lanthanosuchida, Lanthanosuchoidea]MD07
       |       |--Chalcosaurus lukjanovae (Ivakhnenko 1980)TT05
       |       |--Lanthaniscus efremovi Ivakhnenko 1980M93
       |       `--LanthanosuchusM93
       |            |--L. lukjanovae Ivakhnenko 1980M93
       |            `--L. watsoni Efremov 1946M93
       `--+--RhipaeosaurusLF18
          |--Nyctiphruretus [Nyctiphruretida, Nyctiphruretidae]LF18
          |    `--N. acudens Efremov 1938M93
          `--NycteroleteridaM93
               |--Tokosaurus [Tokosauridae]M93
               |    `--T. perforatus Tverdokhlebova & Ivakhnenko 1984TT05
               `--NycteroleteridaeM93
                    |--+--Macroleter poezicus Tverdokhlebova & Ivakhnenko 1984MD07, M93
                    |  `--ProcolophoniaMD07
                    `--+--EmeroleterLF18
                       `--+--Bashkyroleter mesensisLF18
                          `--NycteroleterLF18
                               |--N. bashkyricus Efremov 1940M93
                               |--N. ineptus Efremov 1938M93
                               `--N. kassini Tchudinov 1955M93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B93] Benton, M. J. 1993. Reptilia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 681–715. Chapman & Hall: London.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[LR95] Laurin, M., & R. R. Reisz. 1995. A reevaluation of early amniote phylogeny. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 113: 165–223.

[LF18] Li, C., N. C. Fraser, O. Rieppel & X.-C. Wu. 2018. A Triassic stem turtle with an edentulous beak. Nature 560: 476–479.

[M93] Milner, A. R. 1993. Amphibian-grade Tetrapoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 665–679. Chapman & Hall: London.

[M06] Modesto, S. P. 2006. The cranial skeleton of the Early Permian aquatic reptile Mesosaurus tenuidens: implications for relationships and palaeobiology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 146: 345–368.

[MA04] Modesto, S. P., & J. S. Anderson. 2004. The phylogenetic definition of Reptilia. Systematic Biology 53 (5): 815–821.

[MD07] Modesto, S. P., & R. Damiani. 2007. The procolophonoid reptile Sauropareion anoplus from the lowermost Triassic of South Africa. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 27 (2): 337–349.

[SS15] Schoch, R. R., & H.-D. Sues. 2015. A Middle Triassic stem-turtle and the evolution of the turtle body plan. Nature 523: 584–587.

[TT05] Tverdokhlebov, V. P., G. I. Tverdokhlebova, A. V. Minikh, M. V. Surkov & M. J. Benton. 2005. Upper Permian vertebrates and their sedimentological context in the South Urals, Russia. Earth-Science Reviews 69: 27–77.

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