Calyptostoma larvae on crane fly, copyright Steve Begin.

Belongs within: Prostigmata.
Contains: Erythraeoidea, Hydrachnidia, Trombellidae, Leeuwenhoekiidae, Johnstonianidae, Neothrombiidae, Chyzeriidae, Trombidiidae, Microtrombidiidae, Trombiculidae.

The Parasitengonina are a diverse group of mites with parasitic larvae and predatory deutonymphs and adults, with the active instars separated by inactive calyptostatic stages. They include both terrestrial and aquatic species with authors disagreeing whether or not the aquatic Hydrachnidia represent the sister-group of the other terrestrial lineages.

Terrestrial lineages include the Trombidiae in which the adults have chelicerae with a movable digit that is usually bladelike and not retractable, and the larvae have a prodorsal plate (scutum) and urstigmata present between the contiguous coxal plates I–II. A pregenital tubercle is present in adults of the family Tanaupodidae but absent in other families (Walter et al. 2009).

<==Parasitengonina (see below for synonymy)DPD16
    |  i. s.: Allotanaupodidae [Allotanaupodoidea]ZF11
    |  `--+--HydrachnidiaDPD16
    |     `--Calyptostoma Cambridge 1875S61 [CalyptostomatidaeDPD16, Calyptostomatoidea, Calyptostomidae, Calyptostomidoidea]
    |          |--C. expalpe (Hermann 1804)S61 (see below for synonymy)
    |          |--C. caelatum (Berlese 1904) [=Smaris caelata, C. caelata]S76
    |          |--C. extranea (Koch 1867) [=Smaridia extranea]H98
    |          |--C. latiseta Shiba 1976S76
    |          |--C. lyncaea (Berlese 1887) [=Smaris lyncaea; incl. S. impressa Canestrini 1882 non Koch 1837]S61
    |          |--C. simplexa Shiba 1976S76
    |          `--C. velutinum (Müller 1776) [=Acarus velutinus]S61
    `--Trombidiae [Trombidiina]DPD16
         |  i. s.: AmphotrombiumWL09 [Amphotrombiidae, AmphotrombioideaZF11]
         |           `--A. jenseniWL09
         |         Yurebilla Southcott 1996H98 [Yurebillidae, YurebilloideaZF11]
         |           `--Y. gracilis Southcott 1996H98
         |--Tanaupodidae [Tanaupodoidea]W91
         |    |--Lassenia Newell 1957 [Lasseniinae]W91
         |    |--Polydiscia Methlagl 1928 [Polydisciinae]W91
         |    `--TanaupodinaeW91
         |         |--Rhinothrombium Berlese 1910T35
         |         |    `--R. nemoricolaS51
         |         |--Tanaupodus Haller 1882W91
         |         |    |--*T. steudeli Haller 1882SB63
         |         |    `--T. passimpilosus Berlese 1910SB63
         |         `--Eothrombium Berlese 1910T35
         |              |--E. lasseniWL09
         |              `--E. nemoricolaWL09
         `--Trombidioidea [Microtrombidioidea, Trombiculoidea]LKW09
              |  i. s.: Georgiothrombium pulcherrimumW01
              |         Parawenhoekia Paoli 1937S61
              |           `--*P. dectici Paoli 1937S61
              |         Endotrombicula Ewing 1931S61
              |         AchaemenothrombiidaeZF11
              |         TrombellidaeW91
              |         Audyana Womersley 1954H98 [AudyanidaeW91]
              |           `--A. thompsoni Womersley 1954H98
              |         NeotrombidiidaeW91
              |           |  i. s.: Monunguis streblidaWL09
              |           |--AnomalothrombiinaeWL09
              |           `--Neotrombidium Leonardi 1901 [Neotrombidiinae]S61
              |                |--N. anuroporumWL09
              |                |--N. barringunense Hirst 1928H98
              |                |--N. beeriWL09
              |                |--N. gracilare Womersley 1963H98
              |                |--N. gracilipes Womersley 1963H98
              |                |--N. neptunium Southcott 1961S61 (see below for synonymy)
              |                |--N. papuanum (Canestrini 1884) [=Trombidium papuanum, Trombicula papuana]H98
              |                |--N. samsinakiWL09
              |                `--N. tridentifer (Ewing 1909) [=Rhyncholophus tridentifer]S61
              |         LeeuwenhoekiidaeW91
                 |  `--TrombidiidaeDPD16

Calyptostoma expalpe (Hermann 1804)S61 [=Trombidium expalpeS61, Smaris expalpisS61; incl. *C. hardii Cambridge 1875S61, C. hardyiS61, Smaris impressa Koch 1837S61, S. plana Koch 1879T05]

Neotrombidium neptunium Southcott 1961S61 [=N. tridentifer Southcott 1957 non Rhyncholophus tridentifer Ewing 1909S61, N. bidentifer (l. c.)H98]

Parasitengonina [Apobolostigmata, Engonostigmata, Erythraeina, Erythraiae, Parasitengona, Parasitengonae, Parasitenini, Trombidia, Trombidina]DPD16

*Type species of generic name indicated


[DPD16] Dabert, M., H. Proctor & J. Dabert. 2016. Higher-level molecular phylogeny of the water mites (Acariformes: Prostigmata: Parasitengonina: Hydrachnidiae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 101: 75–90.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Classification. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 97–103. Texas Tech University Press.

[S51] Schweizer, J. 1951. Die Landmilben des schweizerischen Nationalparkes. 2. Teil: Trombidiformes. Ergebnisse der wissenschaftlichen Untersuchung des schweizerischen Nationalparks [Résultats des recherches scientifiques entreprises au Parc National Suisse] 3 (Neue Folge): 51–172.

[SB63] Schweizer, J., & C. Bader. 1963. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Trombidiformes Reuter, mit 217 Arten und Unterarten und 193 Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84 (2): i–vi, 209–378.

[S76] Shiba, M. 1976. Taxonomic investigation on free-living Prostigmata from the Malay Peninsula. Nature and Life in Southeast Asia 7: 83–229.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367–610.

[T35] Thor, S. 1935. Übersicht und Einteilung der Familie Trombidiidae W. E. Leach 1814 in Unterfamilien. Zoologischer Anzeiger 109 (5–6): 107–112.

[T05] Trägårdh, I. 1905. Monographie der arktischen Acariden. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 1–78. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[WL09] Walter, D. E., E. E. Lindquist, I. M. Smith, D. R. Cook & G. W. Krantz. 2009. Order Trombidiformes. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 233–420. Texas Tech University Press.

[W91] Welbourn, W. C. 1991. Phylogenetic studies of the terrestrial Parasitengona. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 163–170. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[W01] Wohltmann, A. 2001. Closely related species of Parasitengonae (Acari: Prostigmata) inhabiting the same areas: features facilitating coexistence. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 121–135. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[ZF11] Zhang, Z.-Q., Q.-H. Fan, V. Pesic, H. Smit, A. V. Bochkov, A. A. Khaustov, A. Baker, A. Wohltmann, T. Wen, J. W. Amrine, P. Beron, J. Lin, G. Gabryś & R. Husband. 2011. Order Trombidiformes Reuter, 1909. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (ed.) Animal biodiversity: an outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness. Zootaxa 3148: 129–138.

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