Pardosa

Pardosa lugubris, copyright MdE.

Belongs within: Lycosinae.

Pardosa is a diverse genus of wolf spiders commonly found in damp habitats near ponds and streams. Species of this genus include P. lugubris, widespread in the Palaearctic region.

<==Pardosa Koch 1847 [Pardosinae]MGK03
    |--+--+--P. brevivulvaPY07
    |  |  `--P. hediniPY07
    |  `--+--P. lauraPY07
    |     `--P. takahashii (Saito 1936)PY07, VMP02
    `--+--+--P. paludicola (Clerck 1757)PY07, MGK03
       |  `--+--+--P. alacrisPY07
       |     |  `--P. lugubris (Walckenaer 1802)PY07, MGK03 (see below for synonymy)
       |     `--+--P. amentata (Clerck 1758)PY07, F08 (see below for synonymy)
       |        `--+--P. ripariaPY07
       |           `--+--P. prativaga (Koch 1870)PY07, K55
       |              `--P. pullata (Clerck 1757)PY07, MGK03 [=Lycosa pullataV09]
       `--+--P. nigraPY07
          `--+--+--P. astrigera Koch 1878PY07, KS02
             |  `--+--P. isagoPY07
             |     `--P. lyriferaPY07
             `--+--P. hortensis (Thorell 1872)PY07, MGK03
                `--+--+--P. oreophilaPY07
                   |  `--P. saturatiorPY07
                   `--+--P. blandaPY07
                      `--+--P. agrestis (Westring 1861)PY07, MGK03
                         `--P. palustris (Linnaeus 1758)PY07, F08 [=Aranea palustrisF08; incl. A. agilisC01, Lycosa agilisC01]
Pardosa incertae sedis:
  P. adumbrata (Urquhart 1887) [=Lycosa adumbrata]NS00
  P. adustella Roewer 1951MGK03
  P. aenigmatica Tongiorgi 1966MGK03
  P. agricola (Thorell 1856)MGK03
  P. aquila Buchar & Thaler 1998MGK03
  P. atrata (Thorell 1873)K02
  P. azerifalcata Marusik, Guseinov & Koponen 2003MGK03
  P. bifasciata (Koch 1834)MGK03
  P. birmanica (Simon 1884)HU08
  P. buchari Ovtsharenko 1979MGK03
  P. caucasica Ovtsharenko 1979MGK03
  P. colchica Mcheidze 1947MGK03
  P. cursoria (Koch 1848) [=Lycosa cursoria]F37
  P. diuturna Fox 1937F37
  P. feldmanni (Strand 1907) (n. d.) [=Lycosa feldmanni]J98
  P. fusculaCM07
  P. goyeniFF99
  P. groenlandicaCM07
  P. gusarensis Marusik, Guseinov & Koponen 2003MGK03
  P. hanrasanensis Jo & Paik 1984MGK03
  P. hyperborea (Thorell 1872)K02
  P. ibex Buchar & Thaler 1998MGK03
  P. incerta Nosek 1905MGK03
  P. injucunda P.-Cambridge 1876 [incl. Lycosa feldmanni xanthippe Strand 1916, P. feldmanni xanthippe]J98
  P. italica Tongiorgi 1966MGK03
  P. jergeniensis Ponomarev 1979MGK03
  P. josemitensis (Strand 1908) [=Lycosa josemitensis]J98
  P. lapidicina (Emerton 1885)KP14
  P. lignariaK01
  P. luctinosa Simon 1876MGK03
  P. mackenziana (Keyserling 1877)PS08
  P. modicaCM07
  P. moestaR14
  P. mongolica Kulczyński 1901K01
  P. monticola (Clerck 1757)K55
  P. morosa (Koch 1870)MGK03
  P. naevioides (Strand 1916) [=Lycosa naevioides]J98
  P. nebulosa (Thorell 1872)MGK03
  P. nigriceps (Thorell 1856)PG08 [=Lycosa nigricepsV09]
  P. paracolchica Zyuzin & Logunov 2000MGK03
  P. pirculiensis Zyuzin & Logunov 2000MGK03
  P. pontica (Thorell 1875)MGK03
  P. pristina Fox 1937F37
  P. proxima (Koch 1847)MGK03 [=Lycosa proximaV09]
  P. proximella Strand 1906 (n. d.) [=Lycosa proximella]J98
    |--P. p. proximellaJ98
    `--P. p. messingerae (Strand 1916) [=Lycosa proximella messingerae]J98
  P. purbeckensis (Westring 1861)PG08
  P. saltans Töpfer-Hofmann 2000PG08
  P. saltuaria (Koch 1870)MGK03
  P. schenkeli Lessert 1904MGK03
  P. seydi (Strand 1908) [=Lycosa seydi]J98
  P. sphagnicola (Dahl 1908)MGK03
  P. strigillata (Simon 1876)K55
  P. tarsalis (Thorell 1856) [=Lycosa tarsalis; incl. P. andersoni Gertsch 1934]F37
  P. tasevi Buchar 1968MGK03
  P. tatarica (Thorell 1875)MGK03
  P. vicariaS99
  P. vittata (Keyserling 1863)MGK03
  P. xerampelinaF37
  P. yaginumaiS94

Pardosa amentata (Clerck 1758)PY07, F08 [=Lycosa amentataV09; incl. Aranea fumigata Linnaeus 1758F08, P. amentata f. ileachensisJ02, A. saccata Linnaeus 1758F08, Lycosa saccataC01]

Pardosa lugubris (Walckenaer 1802)PY07, MGK03 [=Aranea lugubrisC01, Lycosa lugubrisV09; incl. L. lugubris var. arctica Strand 1906S06]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[C01] Cambridge, F. O. P. 1901. A revision of the genera of the Araneae or spiders with reference to their type species. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 51–65.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[F37] Fox, I. 1937. Notes on North American lycosid spiders. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (5): 112–115.

[F08] Framenau, V. W. 2008. A new wolf spider species of the genus Artoria from Western Australia (Araneae: Lycosidae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (4): 363–368.

[HU08] Hore, U., & V. P. Uniyal. 2008. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area, India. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 251–258.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[J02] Jocqué, R. 2002. Genitalic polymorphism—a challenge for taxonomy. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 298–306.

[KP14] Keiser, C. N., & J. N. Pruitt. 2014. Submersion tolerance in a lakeshore population of Pardosa lapidicina (Araneae: Lycosidae). Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 192–194.

[KS02] Kiss, B., & F. Samu. 2002. Comparison of autumn and winter development of two wolf spider species (Pardosa, Lycosidae, Araneae) having different life history patterns. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 409–415.

[K02] Koponen, S. 2002. Ground-living spiders in bogs in northern Europe. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 262–267.

[K55] Kraus, O. 1955. Spinnen von Korsika, Sardinien und Elba (Arach., Araneae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 36: 371–394.

[K01] Kulczyński, V. 1901. Arachnoideák [Arachnoidea]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 311–369. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MGK03] Marusik, Yu. M., E. F. Guseinov & S. Koponen. 2003. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan. 2. Critical survey of wolf spiders (Lycosidae) found in the country with description of three new species and brief review of Palaearctic Evippa Simon, 1885. Arthropoda Selecta 12 (1): 47–65.

[NS00] Nicholls, D. C., P. J. Sirvid, S. D. Pollard & M. Walker. 2000. A list of arachnid primary types held in Canterbury Museum. Records of the Canterbury Museum 14: 37–48.

[PY07] Park, Y. C., J.-S. Yoo, M. P. Schwarz, N. Murphy & J.-P. Kim. 2007. Molecular phylogeny of east Asian wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) inferred from mitochondrial 12S ribosomal DNA. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 100 (1): 1–8.

[PG08] Pétillon, J., & A. Garbutt. 2008. Success of managed realignment for the restoration of salt-marsh biodiversity: preliminary results on ground-active spiders. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 388–393.

[PS08] Pinzón, J., & J. Spence. 2008. Performance of two arboreal pitfall trap designs in sampling cursorial spiders from tree trunks. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 280–286.

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

[S94] Shimizu, A. 1994. Phylogeny and classification of the family Pompilidae (Hymenoptera). Tokyo Metropolitan University Bulletin of Natural History 2: 1–142.

[S99] Simon, E. 1899. Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific (Schauinsland 1896–1897). Arachnoideen. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie un Biologie der Thiere 12 (4): 411–437.

[S06] Strand, E. 1906. Die arktischen Araneae, Opiliones und Chernetes. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 431–478. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the wild fauna and flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[VMP02] Vink, C. J., A. D. Mitchell & A. M. Paterson. 2002. A preliminary molecular analysis of phylogenetic relationships of Australasian wolf spider genera (Araneae, Lycosidae). Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 227–237.

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