Willow tit Poecile montanus, copyright Francis C. Franklin.

Belongs within: Sylviida.
Contains: Parus.

The Paridae, tits, are a family of mostly very small, often boldly patterned birds found in Eurasia, Africa and North America. Most species have short, stout, pointed bills with the nostrils partially concealed by feathers, and rounded wings with the outermost of the ten primary feathers only half the length of the second. They are mostly cavity nesters.

In the past, most tits have been included within a single genus Parus. However, more recent classifications have recognised several distinct genera within the family, such as the black-capped, white-cheeked species of the genus Poecile (including the North American chickadees). The yellow-browed tit Sylviparus modestus is a yellowish-green tit with a weak crest found in montane forests of Asia.

<==Paridae [Parinae]
    |  i. s.: Acredula macrura Seeb. 1883 [=A. caudata var. macrura]M01
    |--Sylviparus Burton 1836BKB15, B94
    |    `--S. modestusBKB15
    `--+--Melanochlora sultanea (Hodgs. 1836)BKB15, W66 [=Parus sultaneusW66; incl. P. flavocristatusW66]
          |  `--MelaniparusBKB15
          |       |--+--M. fasciiventerBKB15 [=Parus fasciiventerJT12]
          |       |  `--M. funereusBKB15 [=Parus funereusJT12]
          |       `--+--M. rufiventrisBKB15 [=Parus rufiventrisJT12]
          |          `--+--M. albiventrisBKB15 [=Parus albiventrisJT12]
          |             `--M. nigerBKB15 [=Parus nigerJT12]
             |  |    |--L. cristatus (Linnaeus 1758)BKB15, M02 [=Parus cristatusJF06]
             |  |    `--L. dichrousBKB15 [=Parus dichrousJF06]
             |  `--BaeolophusBKB15
             |       |--B. wollweberiBKB15 [=Parus wollweberiJF06]
             |       `--+--+--B. atricristatusBKB15
             |          |  `--B. bicolorBKB15 [=Parus bicolorJF06]
             |          `--+--B. inornatusBKB15 [=Parus inornatusJF06]
             |             `--B. ridgwayiBKB15
                |  |    |--P. amabilisBKB15 [=Parus amabilisJT12, Periparus amabilisJF06]
                |  |    `--+--P. elegansBKB15 [=Parus elegansJT12, Periparus elegansJF06]
                |  |       `--P. venustulusBKB15 [=Parus venustulusJT12]
                |  `--PeriparusBKB15
                |       |--+--P. ater Linnaeus 1758BKB15, M02 [=Parus aterJF06]
                |       |  |    |--P. a. aterVP89
                |       |  |    `--‘Parus’ a. kuatunensisVP89
                |       |  `--P. melanolophusJF06 [=Lophophanes melanolophusG73, Parus melanolophusJF06]
                |       `--+--P. rubidiventrisBKB15 [=Parus rubidiventrisJF06]
                |          `--P. rufonuchalisBKB15 [=Lophophanes rufonuchalisG73, Parus rufonuchalisJF06]
                     |--+--P. lugubrisBKB15 [=Parus lugubrisJF06]
                     |  |    |--P. l. lugubrisM02
                     |  |    `--‘Parus’ l. fossilis Čapek 1917M02
                     |  `--+--P. superciliosusBKB15 [=Parus superciliosusJF06]
                     |     `--P. variusJF06 [=Parus variusJT12, Sittiparus variusBKB15]
                     |          |--P. v. variusI92
                     |          |--‘Parus’ v. namiyei Kuroda 1918I92
                     |          |--‘Parus’ v. olivaceus (Kuroda 1923)I92
                     |          |--‘Parus’ v. orii (Kuroda 1923)I92
                     |          `--‘Parus’ v. owstoni (Ijima 1893)I92
                     `--+--+--P. davidiBKB15 [=Parus davidiJF06]
                        |  `--+--P. montanusBKB15 [=Parus montanusJF06]
                        |     |    |--P. m. montanusJE03
                        |     |    `--‘Parus’ m. borealisJE03
                        |     `--P. palustris (Linnaeus 1758)BKB15, L58 [=Parus palustrisJF06]
                        `--+--+--P. carolinensisBKB15 [=Parus carolinensisJF06]
                           |  `--+--P. atricapillusBKB15 [=Parus atricapillusJF06]
                           |     |    |--P. a. atricapillusR68
                           |     |    `--‘Parus’ a. septentrionalisR68
                           |     `--P. gambeliBKB15 [=Parus gambeliJF06]
                           `--+--P. sclateriBKB15 [=Parus sclateriJF06]
                              `--+--P. cinctusBKB15 [=Parus cinctusJF06]
                                 |    |--P. c. cinctusS05
                                 |    `--‘Parus’ c. alascensisS05
                                 `--+--P. hudsonicusBKB15 [=Parus hudsonicusJF06]
                                    `--P. rufescensBKB15 [=Parus rufescensJF06]
Inorganic: Parus atricapillus minilorientalus Okamura 1987O87

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[G73] Gauntlett, F. M. 1973. Notes on some Kashmir birds. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 591–615.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JE03] James, H. F., P. G. P. Ericson, B. Slikas, F.-M. Lei, F. B. Gill & S. L. Olson. 2003. Pseudopodoces humilis, a misclassified terrestrial tit (Paridae) of the Tibetan Plateau: Evolutionary consequences of shifting adaptive zones. Ibis 145: 185–202.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[R68] Rising, J. D. 1968. A multivariate assessment of interbreeding between the chickadees, Parus atricapillus and P. carolinensis. Systematic Zoology 17 (2): 160–169.

[S05] Schalow, H. 1905. Die Vögel der Arktis. In: Römer, F., & F. Schaudinn (eds) Fauna Arctica. Eine Zusammenstellun der arktischen Tierformen, mit besonder Berücksichtigung des Spitzbergen-Gebietes auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Deutschen Expedition in das Nördliche Eismeer im Jahre 1898 vol. 4 pp. 79–288. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[W66] Walden, A. 1866. Notes on birds collected in Tennasserim and in the Andaman Islands. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 537–556.

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