Asian fairy bluebird Irena puella, copyright Jason Thompson.

Belongs within: Passerides.
Contains: Nectariniidae, Dicaeidae, Chloropsis, Ploceidae, Viduidae, Estrildidae, Prunella, Passeridae, Motacillidae, Fringillidae, Emberizoidea.

The Passerida (used here in the restricted sense of Oliveros et al., 2019, equivalent to the Passeroidea of other authors) is a clade of passerine birds recognised by molecular analyses. The core of the Passeroidea is the nine-primaried oscines, a group of passerines characterised by the possession of nine rather than ten primary wing feathers. The nine-primaried oscines also include a large proportion of the granivorous passerines. Also included in the Passerida are basal families such as the Irenidae, Nectariniidae and Promeropidae. The Promeropidae are a small African family including the long-tailed, nectarivorous sugarbirds of the genus Promerops.

<==Passerida [Passeroidea, Tanagridae]OF19
    |    |--Promerops Brisson 1760JT12, B94 [incl. Ptiloturus Swainson 1836B94; Promeropinae, Ptiloturidae]
    |    |    |--*P. caferB94
    |    |    `--P. gurneyiJT12
    |    `--+--+--Arcanator orostruthusJF06
    |       |  `--Kakamega poliothoraxBKB15
    |       `--ModulatrixJT12
    |            |--M. orostruthusJT12
    |            `--M. stictigulaJT12
       |  `--DicaeidaeBKB15
          |  `--Irena Horsfield 1821JT12, B94 [Irenidae]
          |       |--I. cyanogasterL03
          |       |    |--I. c. cyanogasterL03
          |       |    `--I. c. ellae Steere 1890L03
          |       `--I. puellaJT12
          `--+--Peucedramus Henshaw 1875BKB15, B94 [Peucedramidae, Peucedraminae]
             |    `--P. taeniatusKJL00
             `--+--Urocynchramus Przewalski 1876B94 [UrocynchramidaeOF19, Urocynchraminae]
                |    `--U. pylzowiJT12
                   |  `--+--ViduidaeBKB15
                   |     `--EstrildidaeKJL00

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1-281.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[KJL00] Klicka, J., K. P. Johnson & S. M. Lanyon. 2000. New World nine-primaried oscine relationships: constructing a mitochondrial DNA framework. Auk 117: 321–336.

[L03] LeCroy, M. 2003. Type specimens of birds in the American Museum of Natural History. Part 5. Passeriformes: Alaudidae, Hirundinidae, Motacillidae, Campephagidae, Pycnonotidae, Irenidae, Laniidae, Vangidae, Bombycillidae, Dulidae, Cinclidae, Troglodytidae, and Mimidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 278: 1–156.

[OF19] Oliveros, C. H., D. J. Field, D. T. Ksepka, F. K. Barker, A. Aleixo, M. J. Andersen, P. Alström, B. W. Benz, E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, G. A. Bravo, R. T. Brumfield, R. T. Chesser, S. Claramunt, J. Cracraft, A. M. Cuervo, E. P. Derryberry, T. C. Glenn, M. G. Harvey, P. A. Hosner, L. Joseph, R. T. Kimball, A. L. Mack, C. M. Miskelly, A. T. Peterson, M. B. Robbins, F. H. Sheldon, L. F. Silveira, B. T. Smith, N. D. White, R. G. Moyle & B. C. Faircloth. 2019. Earth history and the passerine superradiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (16): 7916–7925.

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