Blue passionflower Passiflora caerulea, photographed by Natalie G.

Belongs within: Violineae.

The Passifloraceae, passionflowers and related taxa, are mostly tendrillar climbers found in temperate and tropical regions of the world. The largest genus is Passiflora of which many species are grown for their edible fruit. Examples include the black passionfruit P. edulis and banana passionfruit P. mollissima. Tetrapathaea tetrandra, the New Zealand passionflower, is distinguished by its tetramerous flowers. The Old World tropical genus Adenia includes various species of shrubs and trees as well as vines with some species being succulent or pachycaulous.

Synapomorphies (from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website): Cyclopentenoid cyanogenic glycosides and/or cyclopentenyl fatty acids present, cyanogenic glycosides derived from valine and isoleucine present; colleters present; calyx and corolla together forming a tube, styles separate; aril present, endotestal cells large, exotegmen palisade, endotegmen persistent; endosperm persistent, oily; biparental or paternal transmission of plastids.

<==Passifloraceae [Passiflorales, Passifloreae]
|--Paropsia edulisT-W89
|--Passifloraephyllum kraeuseli Râsky 1960CBH93
|--Modecca obtusaT-W89
|--Tetrapathaea Reichb. 1828A61
| `--T. tetrandra (Sol.) Cheesem. 1925 [=Passiflora tetrandra Sol. ex DC. 1828; incl. T. australis Raoul 1844]A61
| |--T. mollissimaT-W89
| |--T. speciosaT-W89
| `--T. tripartitaT-W89
| |--A. aculeataJ54
| |--A. cardiophyllaDD73
| |--A. digitata [=Modecca digitata; incl. A. angustisecta, A. buchananii, A. multiflora]J54
| |--A. firingalavensis [=Ophiocaulon firingalavense]J54
| |--A. fruticosaJ54
| |--A. globosaJ54
| |--A. gummifera [=Ophiocaulon gummifera, Modecca gummifera]J54
| |--A. heterophyllaB12
| | |--A. h. ssp. heterophyllaLK14
| | `--A. h. ssp. australisLK14
| |--A. hondalaSR07
| |--A. keramanthusJ54
| |--A. pechuelii [=Echinothamnus pechuelii, Paschanthus pechuelii]J54
| |--A. repanda [=Jaeggidia repanda, Paschanthus repandus; incl. P. jaeggii]J54
| |--A. spinosaJ54
| |--A. trilobataDD73
| |--A. venenataJ54
| `--A. volkensiiJ54
|--P. assamicaDD73
|--P. aurantiaB00
|--P. bifloraMS10
|--P. caeruleaBL04
|--P. ciliataXR12
|--P. cincinnataM99
|--P. cinnabarinaB00
|--P. coccineaNDA05
|--P. edulisH06
| |--P. e. f. edulisCR01
| `--P. e. f. flavicarpaCR01
|--P. ekmaniiJ87
|--P. filamentosaH90
|--P. foetidaB00
| |--P. f. var. foetidaLK14
| `--P. f. var. hispidaLK14
|--P. herbertianaB00
|--P. incarnataT-W89
|--P. laurifoliaP88
|--P. luteaT-W89
|--P. maliformisT-W89
|--P. mollissimaZ02 [=P. tripartita var. mollissimaH06]
|--P. morifoliaH90
|--P. murucujaJ87
|--P. orbiculataJ87
|--P. pallidaT-W89
|--P. quadrangalisB00
|--P. serrataT-W89
|--P. sexfloraJ87
|--P. standleyiNDA05
|--P. suberosaB00
|--P. subpeltata [incl. P. alba]H90
|--P. trisectaH16
`--P. weberbaueri Harms 1916H16

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BL04] Barkman, T. J., S.-H. Lim, K. M. Salleh & J. Nais. 2004. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal the photosynthetic relatives of Rafflesia, the world’s largest flower. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (3): 787–792.

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[B12] Braby, M. F. 2012. The butterflies of El Questro Wilderness Park, with remarks on the taxonomy of the Kimberley fauna, Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 27 (2): 161–175.

[CR01] Chagas, C. M., V. Rossetti, A. Colariccio, O. Lovisolo, E. W. Kitajima & C. C. Childers. 2001. Brevipalpus mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) as vectors of plant viruses. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 369–375. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[CBH93] Collinson, M. E., M. C. Boulter & P. L. Holmes. 1993. Magnoliophyta (‘Angiospermae’). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 809–841. Chapman & Hall: London.

[DD73] Deb, D. B., & R. M. Dutta. 1973. Contribution to the flora of Tirap Frontier Division. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 547–573.

[H90] Harden, G. J. (ed.) 1990. Flora of New South Wales vol. 1. New South Wales University Press.

[H16] Harms, H. 1916. Passifloraceae andinae. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 54 (Beiblatt 117): 79.

[H06] Henderson, L. 2006. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions. Bothalia 36 (2): 201–222.

[J54] Jacobsen, H. 1954. Handbuch der sukkulenten Pflanzen: Beschreibung und Kultur der Sukkulenten mit Ausnahme der Cactaceae vol. 1. Abromeitiella bis Euphorbia. Gustav Fischer Verlag: Jena.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

[MS10] Moore, M. J., P. S. Soltis, C. D. Bell, J. G. Burleigh & D. E. Soltis. 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of 83 plastid genes further resolves the early diversification of eudicots. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (10): 4623–4628.

[M99] Moraes, G. J. de. 1999. Pest status of the cassava green mite in Brazil and strategies for its control. In: Needham, G. R., R. Mitchell, D. J. Horn & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 2. Symposia pp. 287–291. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[NDA05] Nickrent, D. L., J. P. Der & F. E. Anderson. 2005. Discovery of the photosynthetic relatives of the “Maltese mushroom” Cynomorium. BMC Evolutionary Biology 5: 38.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[SR07] Sankar, R. V., K. Ravikumar, N. M. Ganesh Babu & D. K. Ved. 2007. Botany of Anapady MPCA, Palghat district, Kerala with special emphasis on species of conservation concern. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 165–172.

[T-W89] Tenison-Woods, J. E. 1889. On the vegetation of Malaysia. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 4 (1): 9–106, pls 1–9.

[XR12] Xi, Z., B. R. Ruhfel, H. Schaefer, A. M. Amorim, M. Sugumaran, K. J. Wurdack, P. K. Endress, M. L. Matthews, P. F. Stevens, S. Mathews & C. C. Davis. 2012. Phylogenomics and a posteriori data partitioning resolve the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation Malpighiales. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (43): 17519–17524.

[YY22] Yampolsky, C., & H. Yampolsky. 1922. Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 3: 1–62.

[Z02] Zhang, Z.-Q. 2002. Taxonomy of Tetranychus ludeni (Acari: Tetranychidae) in New Zealand and its ecology on Sechium edule. New Zealand Entomologist 25: 27–34.

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