Paxillosida

Seven-armed starfish Luidia ciliaris, copyright Fiona Crouch.

Belongs within: Valvatacea.
Contains: Astropectininae.

The Paxillosida are a group of starfish associated with sandy or muddy habitats. They mostly lack a number of features found in other starfish, such as an anus, extra-oral feeding, suckered tube feet, or a brachiolaria larval stage (Matsubara et al. 2005).

<==Paxillosida [Paxillosa]
    |--Astropectinidae [Diplozonina, Plutonasteridae, Primasterinae]BTH00
    |    |  i. s.: Proserpinaster euryactis (Fisher 1913)MG-H11
    |    |--AstropectininaeSW66
    |    `--Craspidaster Sladen 1889 [incl. Nauricia Gray 1840 (nom. dub.); Craspidasterinae]SW66
    |         `--*C. hesperus (Müller & Troschel 1840) [=Archaster hesperus]SW66
    `--+--Luidia Forbes 1839BTH00, BH04 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |  i. s.: L. avicularia Fisher 1913MG-H11
       |    |         L. clathrataB87
       |    |         L. hardwicki (Gray 1840)MG-H11
       |    |         L. maculata Müller & Troschel 1842SM15
       |    |         L. quinariaMK05
       |    |         L. sarsi Düben & Koren 1884W01 [incl. Bipinnaria asterigeraH04]
       |    |         L. savignyiB87
       |    |--L. (Luidia) ciliaris (Philippi 1837) [=Asterias ciliaris; incl. *L. fragilissima Forbes 1839]SW66
       |    `--L. (Platasterias Gray 1871)BK02, B02 [Platasteriidae]
       |         `--L. (*P.) latiradiata Gray 1871BK02, SW66
       `--+--RadiasteridaeBTH00
          |    |--BetelgeusiaBTH00
          |    `--Radiaster Perrier 1881B87 [incl. Mimaster Sladen 1882SW66; Mimasterinae]
          |         `--*R. elegans Perrier 1881SW66
          `--CribellinaSW66
               |--Ctenodiscinidae [Ctenodiscinae]B87
               |    |--Pectinidiscus Ludwig 1900SW66
               |    |    `--*P. annae Ludwig 1900SW66
               |    `--Ctenodiscus Müller & Troschel 1842 [incl. Anodiscus Perrier 1869]SW66
               |         |--C. crispatus (Retzius 1805) (see below for synonymy)SW66
               |         |--C. australisB87
               |         `--C. orientalis Fisher 1913MG-H11
               `--+--Goniopectinidae [Goniopectininae]B87
                  |    |  i. s.: ‘Nymphaster’ radiatus Spencer 1907SG93
                  |    |--Goniopecten Perrier 1881SW66
                  |    |    `--*G. demonstrans Perrier 1881SW66
                  |    `--Prionaster Verrill 1889SW66
                  |         `--*P. elegans Verrill 1889SW66
                  `--Porcellanasteridae [Cribellosa, Lethmasteridae]BTH00
                       |--Palaeoctenodiscus campaniurnis Blake 1988SG93
                       |--Sidonaster Koehler 1909SW66
                       |    `--*S. vaneyi Koehler 1909SW66
                       |--Porcellanaster Wyville-Thomson 1877 (see below for synonymy)SW66
                       |    `--*P. ceruleus Wyville-Thomson 1877SW66
                       |--Abyssaster Madsen 1961SW66
                       |    `--*A. tara (Wood-Mason & Alcock 1891) [=Hyphalaster tara]SW66
                       |--Benthogenia Fisher 1911SW66
                       |    `--*B. cribellosa Fisher 1911SW66
                       |--Eremicaster Fisher 1905SW66
                       |    `--E. gracilis (Sladen 1883) (see below for synonymy)SW66
                       |--Hyphalaster Sladen 1883SW66
                       |    `--*H. inermis Sladen 1883SW66
                       |--Lysaster Bell 1909SW66
                       |    `--*L. lorioli Bell 1909SW66
                       |--Styracaster Sladen 1883 [incl. Chunaster Ludwig 1907, Machairaster Perrier 1884 (n. n.)]SW66
                       |    `--*S. horridus Sladen 1883SW66
                       `--Thoracaster Sladen 1883SW66
                            `--*T. cylindratus Sladen 1883SW66

Ctenodiscus crispatus (Retzius 1805) [=Asterias crispata; incl. A. polaris Sabine 1821, *Ctenodiscus polaris]SW66

Eremicaster gracilis (Sladen 1883) [=Porcellanaster gracilis; incl. P. tenebrarius Fisher 1905, *Eremicaster tenebrarius]SW66

Luidia Forbes 1839BTH00, BH04 [=Luydia Düben & Koren 1847SW66; incl. Alternaster Döderlein 1920SW66, Armaster Döderlein 1920SW66, Astrella Perrier 1882SW66, Denudaster Döderlein 1920SW66, Hemicnemis Müller & Troschel 1840SW66, Integraster Döderlein 1920SW66, Maculaster Döderlein 1920SW66, Penangaster Döderlein 1920SW66, Petalaster Gray 1840SW66, Quinaster Döderlein 1920SW66, Senegaster Döderlein 1920SW66]

Porcellanaster Wyville-Thomson 1877 [incl. Albatrossaster Ludwig 1907, Albatrossia Ludwig 1905 non Jordan & Evermann 1898, Caulaster Perrier 1882]SW66

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B87] Blake, D. B. 1987. A classification and phylogeny of post-Palaeozoic sea stars (Asteroidea: Echinodermata). Journal of Natural History 21 (2): 481–528.

[B02] Blake, D. B. 2002. Compsaster formosus Worthen & Miller (Asteroidea; Echinodermata): a Carboniferous homeomorph of the post-Paleozoic Asteriidae. Paläontologische Zeitschrift 76 (2): 357–367.

[BH04] Blake, D. B., & F. H. C. Hotchkiss. 2004. Recognition of the asteroid (Echinodermata) crown group: implications of the ventral skeleton. Journal of Paleontology 78: 359–370.

[BK02] Blake, D. B, & B. S. Kues. 2002. Homeomorphy in the Asteroidea (Echinodermata); a new late Cretaceous genus and species from Colorado. Journal of Paleontology 76 (6): 1007–1013.

[BTH00] Blake, D. B., A. Tintori & H. Hagdorn. 2000. A new, early crown-group asteroid (Echinodermata) from the Norian (Triassic) of northern Italy. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 106: 141–156.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[MK05] Matsubara, M., M. Komatsu, T. Araki, S. Asakawa, S. Yokobori, K. Watanabe & H. Wada. 2005. The phylogenetic status of Paxillosida (Asteroidea) based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 598–605.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[SM15] Sampey, A., & L. M. Marsh. 2015. Kimberley marine biota. Historical data: echinoderms. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 84: 207–246.

[SG93] Simms, M. J., A. S. Gale, P. Gilliland, E. P. F. Rose & G. D. Sevastopulo. 1993. Echinodermata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 491–528. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SW66] Spencer, W. K., & C. W. Wright. 1966. Asterozoans. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 1 pp. U4–U107. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[W01] Williamson, D. I. 2001. Larval transfer and the origins of larvae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 131: 111–122.

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