Great scallop Pecten maximus, copyright Steve Trewhella.

Belongs within: Pectinidae.

Pecten is a genus of scallops that is first known from the Upper Eocene. The valves of the shell are distinctly unequal, with the right valve being strongly convex and the left valve only slightly convex, flat or concave. Radial ribs are well developed with those on the more convex right valve being usually wider than the interspaces. Pecten species are free-living on the surface of the substrate. Some members of the genus grow relatively large and are commercially significant. These include the type species, the king scallop P. maximus, which is found in the northeastern Atlantic along the coast of Europe. The Mediterranean scallop P. jacobaeus is a similar species to P. maximus but with more angular ribs with pronounced riblets on the ribs, endemic to the Mediterranean Sea.

Finlay (1927) separated the New Zealand species Pecten novaezelandiae as the type of a new genus Notovola on the basis of it having a more inflated right valve with higher and flatter ribs than Pecten maximus, together with weaker cardinal teeth. This generic distinction is not generally accepted by recent authors.

Pecten Müller 1776RC78 [incl. Notovola Finlay 1927P61]
|--*P. maximus (Linnaeus 1758)P61, L58 [=Ostrea maximaP61]
|--P. accrementaH79
|--P. aduncusO75
|--P. aequisulcatus Carpenter 1864C64
|--P. albicans Schröter 1802XZ10
|--P. albolineatusS42
|--P. altiplicatusC64
|--P. aratusN79 [=Ostrea arataN79; incl. P. sulcatusJ64]
|--P. athletaH86a
|--P. aucklandicusH86a
|--P. beethamiH86a
|--P. bifronsTW76
|--P. burnetti [incl. P. incertus]H86b
|--P. calilliformis Conrad 1855C64
|--P. chathamensisA26
|--P. circularisG79
|--P. comatusC64
|--P. comptus M’Coy 1844F71
|--P. convexusW26
|--P. costatostriatus Marshall 1918F27
|--P. crawfordiH86a
|--P. deformis Gabb 1864F27
|--P. deserti Conrad 1855C64
|--P. devinctusA26
|--P. dieffenbachiiC64
|--P. diegensisB56
|--P. discusC64
|--P. excavatusC64
|--P. fischeriH86a
|--P. floridusC64
|--P. fumatus Reeve 1852MG-H11 [incl. P. albaBRW98]
|--P. giganteus Münster in Goldfuss 1833 non Lima gigantea Gray 1825 (not preoc. if in dif. gen.)RC78
|--P. groenlandicusU79
|--P. hastatus [incl. P. hericeus, P. rubidus]C64
|--P. hectori Hutton 1873F27
|--P. hindsii [incl. P. rastellinum]C64
|--P. hochstetteriM86
|--P. hoskynsi Forbes 1844 (see below for synonymy)N79
|--P. hutchinsoniH86a
|--P. huttoniA26
|--P. irradiansTH59
|--P. jacobaeusPC11
|--P. jeffersonius [incl. P. magnolia]C64
|--P. laetus Gould 1861C64
|--P. latiauritusC64
|--P. laticostatusH79
|--P. madisoniusC64
|--P. magellanicus [incl. P. tenuicostata Mighels & Adams 1841 (n. n.), P. tenuicostatus Mighels & Adams 1842]J49
|--P. mariae Tenison Woods 1876TW76
|--P. medius Lamarck 1819F26
|--P. meekiiC64
|--P. meridionalisF26
|--P. missouriensis Shumard 1855W77
|--P. mitis Dana 1849F71
|--P. modestus Reeve 1852S-S90
|--P. monotimeris [incl. P. tunica]C64
|--P. neozelanicusH86a
|--P. nevadanus Conrad 1855C64
|--P. niveaN79
|--P. nodosusG79
|--P. nordenskioldiG31
|--P. novaezelandiae Reeve 1852P61 [=*Notovola novaezelandiaeF26]
| |--P. n. novaezelandiaeP61
| `--P. n. rakiura Fleming 1951P61
|--P. nucleus [=Ostrea nucleus; incl. P. turgidus]G79
|--P. opercularisBK77
|--P. ornatusS42
|--P. pabloensisC64
|--P. pardulusG31
|--P. paucicostatus Carpenter 1864C64
|--P. pictusS42
|--P. polymorphoidesH86a
|--P. propatulusC64
|--P. purpuratusC64
|--P. pusioN79
|--P. radulaS42
|--P. roemeri [=Neithea roemeri]S02
|--P. scandulaH86a
|--P. sectus Goldfuss 1836F27
|--P. semiplicatus Alth in Favre 1869F27
|--P. senatoriusS42
|--P. septemradiatus [incl. P. adspersus, P. danicus]J64
|--P. sericeusC64
|--P. serratusTW76
|--P. similisN79
|--P. splendidulusS42
|--P. squarrosusC64
|--P. striatocostatus Goldfuss 1833F27
|--P. striatusN79
|--P. subnodosus [incl. P. intermedia]C64
|--P. superbusS42
|--P. tegulaB86
|--P. tigrinusN79
|--P. townsendiC64
|--P. tranquebaricusS42
|--P. triphookiF26
|--P. variusL65
|--P. velutinusS42
|--P. venosusH86a
|--P. ventricosus [incl. P. pomatia, P. tumidus]C64
|--P. vitreus [=Pallium vitreus; incl. Pe. abyssorum Sars 1870, Pe. vitreus var. abyssorum]N79
|--P. waihaoensisA26
|--P. williamsoni [incl. P. aldigensis]H86b
|--P. yahlensisF27
`--P. zitteli Hutton 1873F27

*Type species of generic name indicated


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[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[BRW98] Beesley, P. L., G. J. B. Ross & A. Wells (eds) 1998. Fauna of Australia vol. 5. Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis. Part A. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[B56] Berry, S. S. 1956. Mollusca dredged by the Orca off the Santa Barbara Islands, California, in 1951. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (5): 150–157.

[B86] Brazier, J. 1886. Notes and exhibits. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 577.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[F26] Finlay, H. J. 1926. A further commentary on New Zealand molluscan systematics. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 320–485.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[G79] Guppy, R. J. L. 1879. First sketch of a marine invertebrate fauna of the Gulf of Paria and its neighbourhood. Part I.—Mollusca. Journal of Conchology 2: 151–172.

[H79] Haast, J. von. 1879. Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand. A report comprising the results of official explorations. “Times” Office: Christchurch.

[H86a] Hutton, F. W. 1886a. The Mollusca of the Pareora and Oamaru systems of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 205–237.

[H86b] Hutton, F. W. 1886b. Notes on some Australian Tertiary fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 481–482.

[J64] Jeffreys, J. G. 1864. Report of the committee appointed for exploring the coasts of Shetland by means of the dredge. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 70–81.

[J49] Johnson, R. I. 1949. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels with a bibliography and a catalogue of his species. Occasional Papers on Mollusks 1 (14): 213–231.

[L65] Land, M. F. 1965. Image formation by a concave reflector in the eye of the scallop, Pecten maximus. Journal of Physiology 179: 138–153.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O75] Owen, R. 1875. On fossil evidences of a sirenian mammal (Eotherium aegyptiacum, Owen) from the nummulitic Eocene of the Mokattam cliffs, near Cairo. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 31: 100–105.

[PC11] Plazzi, F., A. Ceregato, M. Taviani & M. Passamonti. 2011. A molecular phylogeny of bivalve mollusks: ancient radiations and divergences as revealed by mitochondrial genes. PLoS One 6 (11): e27147.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[RC78] Roth, B., & E. V. Coan. 1978. Nomenclatural notes on Hinnites giganteus (Gray). Veliger 20 (3): 297–298.

[S02] Scott, R. W. 2002. Albian caprinid rudists from Texas re-evaluated. Journal of Paleontology 76 (3): 408–423.

[S-S90] Slack-Smith, S. M. 1990. The bivalves of Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Berry, P. F., S. D. Bradshaw & B. R. Wilson (eds) Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Bicentenary Expedition Committee pp. 129–157. Western Australian Museum.

[S42] Sowerby, G. B., Jr. 1842. Descriptions of new species of the genus Pecten, figured in Sowerby’s ‘Thesaurus Conchyliorum’. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 10: 163–165.

[TW76] Tenison Woods, J. E. 1876. Description of new Tasmanian shells. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 1875: 134–162.

[TH59] Turner, H. J., Jr & J. E. Hanks. 1959. Infestation of Pecten irradians by Polydora. Nautilus 72 (4): 109–111.

[U79] d’Urban, W. S. M. 1879. The Mollusca of Barents Sea, between Spitzbergen and Novaya Zemblia. Journal of Conchology 2: 88–94.

[W26] Waghorn, R. J. 1926. The geology of the Ruakokopatuna Valley, southern Wairarapa. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 226–234.

[W77] White, C. A. 1877. Report upon the invertebrate fossils collected in portions of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, by parties of the expeditions of 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874. U.S. Geographical Surveys West of the One Hundredth Meridian 4 (1): 1–219, pls 1–21.

[XZ10] Xu, F., & J. Zhang. 2010. Study on the bivalve faunal composition of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. In: China-Russia Bilateral Symposium: Proceedings of the China-Russia Bilateral Symposium of “Comparison on Marine Biodiversity in the Northwest Pacific Ocean”, 10–11 October 2010, Qingdao (China) pp. 7–12. Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences; A. V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.


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