Live Peneroplis planatus, copyright Martina Prazeres.

Belongs within: Soritida.

The Peneroplinae are a group of porcelaneous Foraminifera known from the Upper Triassic to the present (Loeblich & Tappan 1964).

Characters (from Loeblich & Tappan 1964): Test close-coiled in early stage, later may be uncoiled or annular; chambers simple, not divided into chamberlets; aperture rounded, slitlike, or series of pores on final septal face.

<==Peneroplinae [Cristellarinae, Peneroplidinae, Spirolininae]
    |--Penarchaias Hottinger 2007M13
    |--Archiacina Munier-ChalmasLT64, B-F08
    |    `--*A. armorica (d’Archiac in Tournour 1868)LT64, B-F08, LT64 [=Cyclolina armoricaLT64, Peneroplis armoricaLT64]
    |--Puteolina Hofker 1952LT64, B-F08 [=Puteolus Hofker 1950 non Monterosato 1888LT64]
    |    `--*P. proteus (d’Orbigny 1839) [=Peneroplis proteus, *Puteolus proteus]LT64
    |--Monalysidium Chapman 1900LT64
    |    |--*M. sollasi (Chapman 1900) [=Peneroplis (*Monalysidium) sollasi]LT64
    |    `--M. politumC40
    |--Spirolina Lamarck 1804 (see below for synonymy)LT64
    |    |--*S. cylindracea Lamarck 1804 [=*Spiralina cylindracea, *Spirolinites cylindracea, *Spirulina cylindracea]LT64
    |    |--S. arietinusC40
    |    `--*Coscinospira’ hemprichii Ehrenberg 1839LT64
    `--Peneroplis de Montfort 1808S-VC91 [=Cristellaria Lamarck 1816LT64; incl. Laevipeneroplis Šulc 1936LT64]
         |--*P. planatus (Fichtel & Moll 1798) [=Nautilus planatus, *Cristellaria planata, C. squammula Lamarck 1822]LT64
         |--‘Cristellaria’ calcarH04
         |--‘Cristellaria’ compressaH04
         |--‘Cristellaria’ cultrataJP64
         |--‘Cristellaria’ echinataH04
         |--‘Cristellaria’ italicaJP64
         |--P. karreri Wiesner 1923 [=*Laevipeneroplis karreri]LT64
         |--P. pertesus (Forskal 1775)S-VC91
         |--‘Cristellaria’ rotulataJP64
         `--‘Cristellaria’ siddallianaH04

Spirolina Lamarck 1804 [=Spiralina Brown 1844 non Hartmann 1840, Spirolinites Lamarck 1804, Spirulina Ehrenberg 1843 non Bory 1826; incl. Coscinospira Ehrenberg 1839]LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B-F08] BouDagher-Fadel, M. K. 2008. The Cenozoic larger benthic foraminifera: the Palaeogene. Developments in Palaeontology and Stratigraphy 21: 297–418.

[C40] Cushman, J. A. 1940. Foraminifera: Their classification and economic use 3rd ed. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[JP64] Jones, T. R., & W. K. Parker. 1864. Notes on some fossil and Recent Foraminifera, collected in Jamaica by the late Lucas Barrett, F.G.S. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33 (Notices and Abstracts): 80.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[M13] Mikhalevich, V. I. 2013. New insight into the systematics and evolution of the Foraminifera. Micropaleontology 59 (6): 493–527.

[S-VC91] Segura-Vernis, L. R., & A. L. Carreño. 1991. Foraminíferos y ostrácodos de la Laguna de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México. Inv. Mar. CICIMAR 6 (1): 195–224.

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