Pennatula phosphorea, copyright B. E. Picton.

Belongs within: Calcaxonia.

The Pennatulacea, sea pens, are octocorals in which the colony is organised around a central axis anchored in soft sediment.

Characters (from Daly et al. 2007): Colonies developing from anaxial polyp (oozooid) differentiated into bulbous peduncle, and distal rachis bearing secondary polyps. Colony usually supported by internal, rod-like axis of non-scleritic calcite. Secondary polyps usually dimorphic, consisting of tentaculate autozooids and siphonozooids that lack or have greatly reduced tentacles.

Pennatulacea [Pennatulae, Pennatularia, Pennatulida]
| i. s.: StylatulaH04
| |--S. elegansH04
| |--S. elongataCH97
| |--S. finmarchicaH04
| `--S. kinbergiiH04
| Ptilosarcus gurneyiN10
|--ProtoptilumBP14 [ProtoptilidaeDB07]
|--EchinoptilumMG-H11 [EchinoptilidaeDB07]
| `--E. macintoshi Hubrecht 1885MG-H11
|--HalipterisOHO04 [HalipteridaeDB07]
| `--H. californica (Moroff 1902)OHO04
|--VeretillumS79 [VeretillidaeDB07]
| |--V. cynomoriumS79
| `--V. phalloidesG20
|--KophobelemnonPP64 [KophobelemnidaeDB07]
| |--K. leuckartiPP64
| `--K. stelliferumPP64
|--UmbellulaMG-H11 [UmbellulidaeDB07]
| |--U. encrinusH04
| `--U. huxleyi Koelliker 1880MG-H11
|--RenillaBP14 [RenillidaeDB07]
| |--R. americanaG20 [incl. Pennatula reniformisG20, R. reniformisH04]
| |--R. koellikeriS79
| `--R. muelleriBP14
|--FuniculinaMG-H11 [FuniculinidaeDB07]
| |--F. mediterranea Risso 1826R26
| |--F. quadrangularis (Pallas 1766)MG-H11
| `--F. tetragona [=Veretillum tetragonum]G20
| |--AcanthoptilumMG-H11
| |--Scytalium sarsii Herklots 1858MG-H11
| `--VirgulariaC-SC03
| |--V. glacialisH04
| |--V. gustavianaC-SC03
| |--V. leuckartiH04
| |--V. mirabilisH04
| `--V. rumphiiH04
`--Pennatulidae [Pteroeididae]DB07
|--Pennatula Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. encrinus [incl. Umbellularia groenlandica]BS-V28
| |--P. filosa Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. granulosaR26
| |--P. juncea [=Virgularia juncea]G20
| |--P. mirabilis Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. phosphorea Linnaeus 1758L58
| |--P. rubraG20
| |--P. sagitta Linnaeus 1758L58
| `--P. spinosaH04
`--Pteroeides dofleini (Balss 1909)MG-H11

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BS-V28] Bory de Saint-Vincent, J. B. 1828. Voyage Autour du Monde, Exécuté par Ordre du Roi, Sur la Corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille, pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825. Botanique. Cryptogamie. Arthus Bertrand: Paris.

[BP14] Bryce, M., & A. Poliseno. 2014. Two new records of octocorals (Anthozoa, Octocorallia) from north-west Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 29 (2): 159–168.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[C-SC03] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2003. Phylogeny of Choanozoa, Apusozoa, and other Protozoa and early eukaryote megaevolution. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 540–563.

[DB07] Daly, M., M. R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A. G. Collins, M. N. Dawson, D. G. Fautin, S. C. France, C. S. McFadden, D. M. Opresko, E. Rodriguez, S. L. Romano & J. L. Stake. 2007. The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668: 127–182.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[OHO04] Ocaña, O., J. C. den Hartog & L. P. van Ofwegen. 2004. Ring sea anemones, an overview (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria). Graellsia 60 (2): 143–154.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d’Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[S79] Shelton, G. A. B. 1979. Co-ordination of behaviour in cnidarian colonies. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 141–154. Academic Press: London.

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