Pentamerida

Porambonites (Porambonites) schmidti, from here.

Belongs within: Rhynchonellata.
Contains: Stricklandioidea, Gypidulidae, Clorindinae, Pentameridae, Virgianidae, Huenellidae, Clarkellidae, Camerellidae, Parastrophinidae, Tetralobulidae.

The Pentamerida are a group of brachiopods known from the Middle Cambrian to the Upper Devonian, with an impunctate shell and an unrestricted pedicle opening. In the Middle Cambrian to Lower Devonian Porambonitacea, the brachiophores are united by supporting plates of variable length. In the Middle Ordovician to Upper Devonian Pentameridina, the inner such plates are long and curved outward to meet the lateral walls of the valve (Amsden & Biernat 1965).

Characters (from Amsden & Biernat 1965): Generally biconvex shells with pedicle spondylium; delthyrium may be unmodified or at least partly closed by deltidium. Brachial valve with brachial processes, commonly braced at their posterior end by supporting plates and usually terminating blindly (ending in a loop in Enantiosphenidae). Shell impunctate.

<==Pentamerida
    |--Pentameridina [Pentameracea]RZJ04
    |    |  i. s.: ParallelelasmatidaeAB65
    |    |           |--Parallelelasma Cooper 1956AB65
    |    |           |    `--*P. pentagonum Cooper 1956AB65
    |    |           |--Didymelasma Cooper 1956AB65
    |    |           |    `--*D. longicrurum Cooper 1956AB65
    |    |           |--Metacamerella Reed 1917AB65
    |    |           |    `--*M. balcletchiensis (Davidson 1883) [=Stricklandinia balcletchiensis]AB65
    |    |           `--Salonia Cooper & Whitcomb 1933AB65
    |    |                `--*S. magnaplicata Cooper & Whitcomb 1933AB65
    |    |--StricklandioideaRZJ04
    |    |--GypidulidaeRZJ04
    |    |--ClorindinaeRZJ04
    |    `--PentameroideaRZJ04
    |         |  i. s.: Eokirkidium Khodalevich & Sapelnikov 1970RZJ04
    |         |         Vagranella Sapelnikov 1960RZJ04
    |         |           `--V. diversoplicata Sapelnikov 1960RZJ04
    |         |         Subriana Sapelnikov 1960RZJ04
    |         |         Mariannaella Sapelnikov & Rukavishnikova 1975RZJ04
    |         |         Lissidium Lenz 1989RZJ04
    |         |--PentameridaeRZJ04
    |         |--VirgianidaeRZJ04
    |         `--Enantiosphen Whidborne 1893AB65 [EnantiosphenidaeHB93]
    |              `--*E. vicaryi (Davidson 1882) [=Meganteris vicaryi]AB65
    `--Porambonitacea [Porambonitoidea, Syntrophiidina, Syntrophiacea, Syntrophioidea]AB65
         |--HuenellidaeAB65
         |--ClarkellidaeAB65
         |--CamerellidaeAB65
         |--ParastrophinidaeAB65
         |--TetralobulidaeAB65
         |--Cambrotrophia Ulrich & Cooper 1937 [=Eostrophia Ulrich & Cooper 1936 non Dall 1890; Eostrophiidae]AB65
         |    `--*C. cambria (Walcott 1908) [=Syntrophia cambrica, *Eostrophia cambria]AB65
         |--Lycophoria Lahusen 1886 [Lycophoriidae]AB65
         |    `--*L. nucella (Dalman 1828) [=Atrypa nucella]AB65
         |--BrevicameridaeHB93
         |    |--Vaga sinualis Sapelnikov & Rukavishnikova 1973HB93
         |    `--Brevicamera Cooper 1956AB65
         |         `--*B. camerata Cooper 1956AB65
         |--SyntrophiidaeAB65
         |    |--Xenelasmella perplexa Liu et al. 1984HB93
         |    |--Xenelasma Ulrich & Cooper 1936 [Xenelasmatinae, Xenelasminae]AB65
         |    |    `--*X. syntrophioides Ulrich & Cooper 1936AB65
         |    `--Syntrophia Hall & Clarke 1893AB65
         |         |--*S. lateralis (Whitfield 1886) [=Triplecia lateralis]AB65
         |         |--S. gigantea Ross 1987HB93
         |         `--S. toryniferaAB65
         |--SyntrophopsidaeAB65
         |    |--Tcharella amgensis Andreeva 1987HB93
         |    |--Syntrophopsis Ulrich & Cooper 1936AB65
         |    |    |--*S. magna Ulrich & Cooper 1936AB65
         |    |    `--S. leviculaC52
         |    |--Hesperotrophia Ulrich & Cooper 1936AB65
         |    |    `--*H. obscura Ulrich & Cooper 1936AB65
         |    `--Rhysostrophia Ulrich & Cooper 1936AB65
         |         `--*R. nevadensis Ulrich & Cooper 1936AB65
         `--Porambonites Pander 1830 [Porambonitidae]AB65
              |  i. s.: P. umbonatus Cooper 1956HB93
              |--P. (Porambonites)AB65
              |    |--*P. (P.) intermedia Pander 1830AB65
              |    |--P. (P.) reticulatus Pander 1830AB65
              |    `--P. (P.) schmidtiAB65
              |--P. (Equirostra Cooper & Muir-Wood 1951) [=Isorhynchus King 1850 non Schoenherr 1833]AB65
              |    `--P. (*E.) aequirostris (von Schlotheim 1820) (see below for synonymy)AB65
              `--P. (Noetlingia Hall & Clarke 1894)AB65
                   `--P. (*N.) tscheffkini (de Verneuil 1840) [=Spirifer tscheffkini]AB65
Pentamerida incertae sedis:
  Tcherskidium Nikolaev & Sapelnikov 1969RZJ04
  Galeatellina Sapelnikov & Rukavishnikova 1976RZJ04
  Vosmiverstum Breivel & Breivel 1970RZJ04
  Angusticardiniidae [Apatorthidae, Angusticardiniinae]HB93
    |--Angusticardinia Schuchert & Cooper 1931WW65
    |    |--*A. recta (Pander 1830) [=Porambonites recta]WW65
    |    `--A. striata (Pander 1830)HB93
    `--Apatorthis Öpik 1933WW65
         |--*A. punctata Öpik 1933WW65
         `--A. ultima Öpik 1933HB93

Porambonites (*Equirostra) aequirostris (von Schlotheim 1820) [=Terebratulites aequirostris, P. (*Isorhynchus) aequirostris]AB65

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AB65] Amsden, T. W., & G. Biernat. 1965. Pentamerida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 2 pp. H523–H552. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[C52] Cooper, G. A. 1952. New and unusual species of brachiopods from the Arbuckle Group in Oklahoma. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (14): 1–35, 4 pls.

[HB93] Harper, D. A. T., C. H. C. Brunton, L. R. M. Cocks, P. Copper, E. N. Doyle, A. L. Jeffrey, E. F. Owen, M. A. Parkes, L. E. Popov & C. D. Prosser. 1993. Brachiopoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 427–462. Chapman & Hall: London.

[RZJ04] Rong, J.-Y., R.-B. Zhan & J. Jin. 2004. The Late Odovician and Early Silurian pentameride brachiopod Holorhynchus Kiaer, 1902 from north China. Journal of Paleontology 78 (2): 287–299.

[WW65] Williams, A., & A. D. Wright. 1965. Orthida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 1 pp. H299–H359. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

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