Individuals of Porocephalus crotali dissected out of spotted desert racer Platyceps karelini, from Rataj et al. (2011).

Belongs within: Oligostraca.

The Pentastomida, tongue worms, are a group of worm-like parasites found in the respiratory passages of vertebrates (most commonly vertebrates). Recent studies have concluded that pentastomids are highly derived arthropods, related to the fish lice of the Branchiura.

Characters (from Miller & Harley 1996): Brain, ventral nerve cord with ganglia, and haemocoel present. Dioecious, females larger than males. Gonads unpaired; gonopores open to outside; fertilisation internal with mating occuring within final host. Larva with four to six jointed appendages, developing in intermediate host.

<==Pentastomida [Lingulatulida, Pentastoma, Pentastomata]
    |  i. s.: Pentastomum crociduraeP89
    |--Raillietiella [Raillietiellida, Raillietiellidae]MD01
    |    `--R. hemidactyliMG06
    |    |--CephalobaenaA99 [CephalobaenidaeMD01]
    |    |    `--C. tetrapodaA99
    |    `--Hispania Martínez, Crado-Fornelio et al. 2004F05 [Reighardiida, ReighardiidaeMD01]
    |         `--*H. vulturis Martínez, Crado-Fornelio et al. 2004F05
         |--LinguatulaA99 [LinguatulidaeMD01]
         |    `--L. serrataA99
         |--ArmilliferRS10 [ArmilliferidaeMD01]
         |    `--A. armillatusRS10
         `--PorocephalusGD00 [PorocephalidaeMD01]
              `--P. crotaliGD00

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[GD00] Giribet, G., D. L. Distel, M. Polz, W. Sterrer & W. C. Wheeler. 2000. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. Systematic Biology 49: 539–562.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772–794.

[MD01] Martin, J. W., & G. E. Davis. 2001. An updated classification of the Recent Crustacea. Natural History Museum Los Angeles County, Science Series 39: 1–124.

[P89] Parona, C. 1889. Sopra alcuni elminti di Vertebrati birmani raccolti da Leonardo Fea. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 765–780.

[RS10] Regier, J. C., J. W. Shultz, A. Zwick, A. Hussey, B. Ball, R. Wetzer, J. W. Martin & C. W. Cunningham. 2010. Arthropod relationships revealed by phylogenomic analysis of nuclear protein-coding sequences. Nature 463: 1079–1083.

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