?Epicyliosoma sp., copyright Imbala.

Belongs within: Diplopoda.

The Pentazonia are a clade including the pill millipedes and related taxa. Members of this clade are united by the presence of telopods and divided sternites. Most are included in a subclade Oniscomorpha characterised by enlargement of the second tergite (Sierwald et al 2003).

<==Pentazonia [Opisthandria]
    |--GlomeridesmusP92 [GlomeridesmidaSS03, Glomeridesmidae, Limacomorpha]
         |    |  i. s.: Paraglomeris carbonaria Schlechtendal 1912RHV04
         |    |--Amynilyspes Scudder 1882 [Acroglomeridae, Amynilyspedidae]RHV04
         |    |    |--*A. wortheni Scudder 1882RHV04
         |    |    |--A. crescens Fritsch 1899RHV04
         |    |    |--A. fatimae Racheboeuf, Hannibal & Vannier 2004RHV04
         |    |    `--A. typicus Fritsch 1899RHV04
         |    `--+--Palaeosphaeridium Peach 1914RHV04
         |       |--Glomeropsis Fritsch 1899 [Sphaerherpestidae]RHV04
         |       |    `--G. ovalis Fritsch 1899RB93
         |       `--Archiscudderia Fritsch 1899 [Proglomeridae]RHV04
         |            `--A. paupera Fritsch 1899RB93
         |--Glomerida [Plesiocerata]RHV04
         |    |  i. s.: Corsikomeris remyi Verhoeff 1943RHV04
         |    `--Glomeridae [Glomerididae]TKM93
         |         |--Onomeris underwoodiH90
         |         |--GlomeroidesH90
         |         `--Glomeris Latreille 1802L02
         |              |--G. castaneusR26
         |              |--G. connexaL89
         |              |--G. denticulata Menge 1854RB93
         |              |--G. distichellaA99
         |              |--G. guttatus Risso 1826R26
         |              |--G. helveticaA99
         |              |--G. inferorum Latzel 1889L89
         |              |--G. marginataKAA-W00
         |              |--G. ovalisG20 [=Julus ovatusL02]
         |              `--G. pustulata Latreille 1804TKM93 [=Oniscus pustulatusL02]
              |--Sphaeropoeus [Sphaeropoeidae]B13
                   |--Cycliosomella furcipatum [=Sechelliosoma furcipatum]H02
                   |--Arthrosphaera brandti Humbert 1865RHV04
                   |--Procyliosoma Silvestri 1917MH08
                   |--Cynotelopus Jeekel 1986MH08
                   |    `--C. notabilis Jeekel 1986MH08
                   |    |--S. convexum Koch 1847MH08
                   |    `--S. libidinosumB13
                   |--Epicyliosoma Silvestri 1917MH08
                   |    |  i. s.: E. penrithense (Brölemann 1913)MH08
                   |    |         E. sennae (Silvestri 1898)MH08
                   |    |--E. (Epicyliosoma)MH08
                   |    |    |--*E. (E.) albertisii (Silvestri 1895) [=Zephronia albertisii]MH08
                   |    |    `--E. (E.) sarahae Moir & Harvey 2008MH08
                   |    `--E. (Paracyliosoma Verhoeff 1928)MH08
                   `--Cyliosoma Pocock 1895B13
                        |--*C. angulatum (Butler 1878) [=Sphaerotherium angulatum]B13
                        |--C. delacyi (White 1859) [=Zephronia delacyi]B13
                        |--C. leiosomum [=Sphaerotherium leiosomum]B13
                        |--C. penrithensis Brölemann 1913B13
                        |--C. queenslandiae Brölemann 1913B13
                        |--C. sennae Silvestri 1898B13
                        |--C. striolatum Pocock 1895B13
                        |--C. targionii Silvestri 1898B13
                        `--C. unicolor Silvestri 1897B13

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A99] Ax, P. 1999. Das System der Metazoa II. Ein Lehrbuch der phylogenetischen Systematik. Gustav Fisher Verlag: Stuttgart (translated: 2000. Multicellular Animals: The phylogenetic system of the Metazoa vol. 2. Springer).

[B13] Brölemann, H. W. 1913. The Myriapoda in the Australian Museum. Part ii. Diplopoda. Records of the Australian Museum 10 (6): 77–158, pls 14–18.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H90] Hoffman, R. L. 1990. Diplopoda. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 835–860. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[H02] Hunt, D. J. 2002. The African Rhigonematoidea (Nematoda: Rhigonematida). 1. Trachyglossus quintus gen. n., sp. n. (Xustrostomatidae fam. n.) with redescription of Rhigonema multipapillatum (Skrjabin, 1916) and designation of a neotype. Nematology 4: 671–686.

[KAA-W00] Kheirallah, A.-M., A.-N. H. Aly & N. Y. Abdel-Wahed. 2000. Anamorphosis and life-history of the millipede Nopoiulus kochii (Gervais, 1847), new for Egypt. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 159–168.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L89] Latzel, R. 1889. Sopra alenni miriapodi cavernicoli italiani, raccolti dai Sign. A. Vacca e R. Barberi. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 360–362.

[MH08] Moir, M. L., & M. S. Harvey. 2008. Discovery of the pill millipede genus Epicyliosoma (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida: Sphaerotheriidae) in Western Australia, with the description of a new species. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (2): 113–119.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RHV04] Racheboeuf, P. R., J. T. Hannibal & J. Vannier. 2004. A new species of the diplopod Amynilyspes (Oniscomorpha) from the Stephanian Lagerstätte of Montceau-les-Mines, France. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 221–229.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & D. E. G. Briggs. 1993. Arthropoda (Euthycarcinoidea and Myriapoda). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 357–361. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SS03] Sierwald, P., W. A. Shear, R. M. Shelley & J. E. Bond. 2003. Millipede phylogeny revisited in the light of the enigmatic order Siphoniulida. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 41: 87–99.

[TKM93] Thaler, K., B. Knoflach & E. Meyer. 1993. Fragmenta faunistica Tirolensia—X. Berichte des Naturwissenschaftlich-Medizinischen Vereins in Innsbruck 80: 311–325.

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