Peridiniaceae

Cyst of Magallanesium macmurdoense, from here.

Belongs within: Peridiniales.
Contains: Peridinium.

The Peridiniaceae are a group of dinoflagellates with a distinct cingulum, containing four to six cingular plates, and at least one intercingular boundary on the dorsal surface (Fensome et al. 1993).

Characters (from Fensome et al. 1993): Test with four Kofoid apical plates; five postcingular plates; cingulum distinct with four to six cingular plates, excluding transitional plate where present; at least one dorsal intercingular boundary present. Cysts typically cavate, peridinioid; archeopyle may be focussed on dorsal surface or in apical region.

Peridiniaceae (see below for synonymy)
    |  i. s.: Maduradinium Cookson & Eisenack 1970FT93
    |         Morkallacysta Harris 1974FT93
    |         Muiradinium Harland & Sarjeant 1970FT93
    |           `--M. dorsispirale (Churchill & Sarjeant 1962) Harland & Sarjeant 1970EB93
    |         Talimudinium Mao & Norris 1988FT93
    |         Zhongyuandinium Zhu, He & Jin in He et al. 1989FT93
    |--LithoperidinioideaeFT93
    |    |--Jusella Vozzhennikova 1963FT93
    |    `--Lithoperidinium Deflandre 1933 [incl. Peridinites Lefèvre 1933]FT93
    |         |--‘Peridinites’ globosus Lefèvre 1933FT93
    |         `--‘Peridinites’ parvulus Lefevre 1933EB93
    |--Peridinioideae [Peridiniinae]FT93
    |    |--PeridiniumFT93
    |    `--Kansodinium Carty & Cox 1986FT93
    |--Wetzelielloideae [Wetzeliellaceae]FT93
    |    |--Wilsonidium Lentin & Williams 1976FT93
    |    |--Charlesdowniea Lentin & Vozzhennikova 1989FT93
    |    |--Dracodinium Gocht 1955FT93
    |    |--Kisselovia Vozzhennikova 1963 (see below for synonymy)FT93
    |    |--Rhombodinium Gocht 1955FT93
    |    |    `--R. porosum Bujak 1979FT93
    |    |--Apectodinium (Costa & Downie 1976) Lentin & Williams 1977FT93
    |    |    |--A. augustumB08
    |    |    |--A. homomorphum (Deflandre & Cookson) Lentin & Williams 1977EB93
    |    |    |--A. hyperacanthum (Cookson & Eisenack) Lentin & Williams 1977EB93
    |    |    `--A. parvumG87
    |    `--Wetzeliella Eisenack 1938 [incl. Gochtodinium Bujak 1979]FT93
    |         |--W. astra Denison in Costa et al. 1978EB93
    |         |--W. gochtii Costa & Downie 1976EB93
    |         |--W. hampdenensis Wilson 1967K95
    |         |--W. lunarisG87
    |         `--W. symmetrica Weiler 1956EB93
    |--Spinidinioideae [Spinidinieae]QS03
    |    |--Volkheimeridium Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003QS03
    |    |    |--*V. lanterna (Cookson & Eisenack) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 (see below for synonymy)QS03
    |    |    |--V. clavum (Harland) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 [=Spinidinium clavum Harland 1973]QS03
    |    |    |--V. irmoechinatum (Heisecke) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 (see below for synonymy)QS03
    |    |    `--V. luciae (Wrenn & Hart) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 [=Spinidinium luciae Wrenn & Hart 1988]QS03
    |    |--Spinidinium Cookson & Eisenack 1962QS03
    |    |    |--*S. styloniferum Cookson & Eisenack 1962QS03
    |    |    |--S. colemanii Wrenn & Hart 1988QS03
    |    |    |--S. denticulatum Pothë de Baldis & Ramos 1983QS03
    |    |    |--S. echinoideum (Cookson & Eisenack) Lentin & Williams 1976 (see below for synonymy)QS03
    |    |    |--S. rhombicum (Cookson & Eisenack) Stover & Evitt 1978 (see below for synonymy)QS03
    |    |    `--S. sagittula (Drugg) Lentin & Williams 1976 [=Deflandrea sagittula Drugg 1970]QS03
    |    `--Magallanesium Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003QS03
    |         |--*M. macmurdoense (Wilson) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 (see below for synonymy)QS03
    |         |--M. asymmetricum (Wilson) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 (see below for synonymy)QS03
    |         |--M. balmei (Cookson & Eisenack) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 (see below for synonymy)QS03
    |         |--M. densispinatum (Stanley) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 [=Spinidinium densispinaton Stanley 1965]QS03
    |         |--M. denticulatum (Pothë de Baldis & Ramos) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 (see below for synonymy)QS03
    |         |--M. essoi (Cookson & Eisenack) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 [=Spinidinium essoi Cookson & Eisenack 1967]QS03
    |         |--M. pilatum (Stanley) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 (see below for synonymy)QS03
    |         |--M. pulchrum (Benson) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 (see below for synonymy)QS03
    |         `--M. rallum (Heisecke) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 [=Spinidinium rallum Heisecke 1970]QS03
    |--Ovoidinioideae [Ascodinioideae, Ovoidiniaceae]FT93
    |    |--Bohaidina Jiabo 1978FT93
    |    |--Bosedinia He 1984 [=Bosea He & Qian 1979 non Srivastava 1975]FT93
    |    |--Cepadinium Duxbury 1983FT93
    |    |--Corculodinium Batten & Lister 1988FT93
    |    |--Craspedodinium Cookson & Eisenack 1974FT93
    |    |--Epelidosphaeridia Davey 1969FT93
    |    |--Holmwoodinium Batten 1985FT93
    |    |--Huanghedinium Zhu, He & Jin in He et al. 1989FT93
    |    |--Parabohaidina Jiabo 1978FT93
    |    |--Paraperidinium Jin, He & Zhu in He et al. 1989FT93
    |    |--Prominangularia Jiabo 1978FT93
    |    |--Ripea Batten 1985FT93
    |    |--Leberidocysta Stover & Evitt 1978FT93
    |    |    `--L. chlamydata (Cookson & Eisenack 1962) Stover & Evitt 1978RC02
    |    |--Ascodinium Cookson & Eisenack 1960FT93
    |    |    |--A. acrophorum Cookson & Eisenack 1960RC02
    |    |    |--A. parvum (Cookson & Eisenack) Cookson & Eisenack 1960EB93
    |    |    `--A. serratum Cookson & Eisenack 1960RC02
    |    `--Ovoidinium Davey 1970 [incl. Evittia Pocock 1972 non Brito 1967, Pocockia Lentin & Williams 1973]FT93
    |         |--O. cinctum (Cookson & Eisenack 1958) Davey 1970RC02
    |         |--O. granulatum Song in Song et al. 1985EB93
    |         |--O. ovale (Cookson & Eisenack 1970) Lentin & Williams 1976RC02
    |         |--O. verrucosum (Cookson & Hughes) Davey 1970EB93
    |         `--O. waltonii (Pocock) Lentin & Williams 1976EB93
    |--Palaeoperidinioideae (see below for synonymy)QS03
    |    |  i. s.: ‘Peridinium’ limbatum (Stokes 1887) Lemmermann 1899FT93
    |    |--Williamsidinium Lentin 1983FT93
    |    |--Colonsaydinium Hunt in Hunt et al. 1985FT93
    |    |--Ginginodinium Cookson & Eisenack 1960FT93
    |    |--Indosphaera Kumar 1986FT93
    |    |--Jinhudinium Qian et al. 1986FT93
    |    |--Soaniella Vozzhennikova 1967FT93
    |    |--Teneridinium Krutzsch 1962FT93
    |    |--Vectidinium Liengjarern et al. 1980FT93
    |    |--Geiselodinium Krutzsch 1962 [incl. Cubiculosphaera Harris 1974]FT93
    |    |    `--G. tyonekense Engelhardt 1976EB93
    |    |--Chichaouadinium Below 1981FT93
    |    |    `--C. vestitum (Brideaux 1971) Bujak & Davies 1983FT93
    |    |--Dioxya Cookson & Eisenack 1958FT93
    |    |    `--D. armata Cookson & Eisenack 1958RC02
    |    |--Laciniadinium McIntyre 1975 [incl. Sinocysta He 1984]FT93
    |    |    `--L. tenuistriatum (Eisenack & Cookson 1960) Morgan 1977RC02
    |    |--Palaeohystrichophora Deflandre 1935FT93
    |    |    `--P. infusorioides Deflandre 1935FT93
    |    |--Saeptodinium Harris 1974 [incl. Sanshuia Yu et al. 1981]FT93
    |    |    `--‘Scriniodinium’ eurypylum Manum & Cookson 1964FT93
    |    |--Luxadinium Brideaux & McIntyre 1975EB93
    |    |    `--L. dabendorfense (Alberti) Bujak & Davies 1983)EB93
    |    |--Subtilisphaera Jain & Millepied 1973FT93
    |    |    |--S. inaeffecta (Drugg) Bujak & Davies 1983EB93
    |    |    |--S. senegalensis Jain & Millepied 1973I02
    |    |    `--S. terrula (Davey 1974) Lentin & Williams 1976FT93
    |    |--Palaeoperidinium Deflandre 1934 (see below for synonymy)FT93
    |    |    |--P. cretaceum (Pocock 1962) Lentin & Williams 1976RC02
    |    |    |--P. pyrophorum (Ehrenberg) Sarjeant 1967 [=Peridinium pyrophorum Ehrenberg 1838]FT93
    |    |    `--P. spinosissimumH75
    |    |--Phthanoperidinium Drugg & Loeblich 1967FT93
    |    |    |--P. amoenum Drugg & Loeblich 1967FT93
    |    |    |--‘Hystrichogonyaulax’ coreoides Benedek 1972FT93
    |    |    |--P. crenulatum Heilmann-Clausen 1985EB93
    |    |    |--P. lambdoideum (Nagy) Eisenack & Kjellström 1971EB93
    |    |    `--P. polytrix Benedek 1972EB93
    |    `--Diconodinium Eisenack & Cookson 1960FT93
    |         |--D. cristatum Cookson & Eisenack 1974RC02
    |         |--D. multispinum (Deflandre & Cookson 1955) Eisenack & Cookson 1960RC02
    |         |--D. pelliferum (Cookson & Eisenack 1958) Eisenack & Cookson 1960RC02
    |         |--D. psilatum Morgan 1977RC02
    |         `--D. pusillum Singh 1971RC02
    `--Deflandreoideae (see below for synonymy)QS03
         |--Smolenskiella Vozzhennikova 1967FT93
         |--Abratopdinium Mao & Mohr 1992FT93
         |--Amphidiadema Cookson & Eisenack 1960FT93
         |--Andalusiella Riegel 1974FT93
         |--Arvalidinium Lentin & Vozzhennikova 1990FT93
         |--Bulbodinium Wetzel 1960FT93
         |--Cerodinium Vozzhennikova 1963 [incl. Ceratiopsis Vozzhennikova 1963 non de Wildeman 1896]FT93
         |--Eucladinium Stover & Evitt 1978FT93
         |--Eurydinium Stover & Evitt 1978FT93
         |--Evittodinium Deflandre 1964FT93
         |--Gippslandia Stover & Williams 1987FT93
         |--Godavariella Mehrotra & Sarjeant 1987FT93
         |--Hexagonifera Cookson & Eisenack 1961FT93
         |--Nelsoniella Cookson & Eisenack 1960FT93
         |--Pierceites Habib & Drugg 1987FT93
         |--Planoperidinium de Coninck 1986FT93
         |--Satyrodinium Lentin & Manum 1986FT93
         |--Svalbardella Manum 1960FT93
         |--Trivalvadinium Islam 1983FT93
         |--Uvatodinium Vozzhennikova 1963FT93
         |--Vozzhennikovia Lentin & Williams 1976FT93
         |--Xenikoon Cookson & Eisenack 1960FT93
         |--Xuidinium Mao & Norris 1988FT93
         |--Lentinia Bujak 1980FT93
         |    `--L. serrata Bujak 1980FT93
         |--Senegalinium Jain & Millepied 1973FT93
         |    `--S. aenigmaticum (Boltenhagen) Lentin & Williams 1981I02
         |--Pyxidiella Cookson & Eisenack 1958FT93
         |    `--P. scrobiculata (Deflandre & Cookson 1955) Cookson & Eisenack 1958FT93
         |--Sumatradinium Lentin & Williams 1976FT93
         |    `--‘Xenicodinium’ hispidum Drugg 1970FT93
         |--Chatangiella Vozzhennikova 1967 (see below for synonymy)FT93
         |    |--C. campbellensisCF03
         |    `--C. verrucosa (Manum 1963) Lentin & Williams 1976FT93
         |--Manumiella Bujak & Davies 1983FT93
         |    |--M. druggiiCF03
         |    `--M. seelandicaCF03
         |--Alterbidinium Lentin & Williams 1985 (see below for synonymy)FT93
         |    |--A. acutulumCF03
         |    `--A. pentaradiatumQS03
         |--Trithyrodinium Drugg 1967FT93
         |    |--T. suspectum (Manum & Cookson 1964) Davey 1969RC02
         |    `--T. vermiculatum (Cookson & Eisenack 1961) Lentin & Williams 1976RC02
         |--Palaeocystodinium Alberti 1961 [incl. Cystodiniopsis Vozzhennikova 1963]FT93
         |    |--P. golzowense Alberti 1961QS03
         |    |--P. granulatumCF03
         |    `--*Cystodiniopsis’ hyperxantha Vozzhennikova 1963FT93
         |--Isabelidinium Lentin & Williams 1977 [=Isabelia Lentin & Williams 1976 non Barbosa-Rodrigues 1877]FT93
         |    |--I. acuminatum (Cookson & Eisenack 1958) Stover & Evitt 1978RC02
         |    |--I. bakeri (Deflandre & Cookson 1955) Lentin & Williams 1977QS03
         |    |--I. cingulatumQS03
         |    |--I. cretaceumG87
         |    `--I. glabrum (Cookson & Eisenack 1969) Lentin & Williams 1977RC02
         `--Deflandrea Eisenack 1938FT93
              |--D. boloniensis (Riegel) Wrenn & Hart 1988QS03
              |--D. cygniformis Pöthe de Baldis 1966QS03
              |--D. dartmooriaQS03
              |--D. foveolataQS03
              |--D. fuegensis Menéndez 1965QS03
              |--D. granulata Menéndez 1965QS03
              `--D. phosphoriticaG87

Alterbidinium Lentin & Williams 1985 [=Albertia Vozzhennikova 1967 non Schimper in Voltz 1837, Alterbia Lentin & Williams 1976 (nom. illeg.)]FT93

Chatangiella Vozzhennikova 1967 [incl. Australiella Vozzhennikova 1967 non Collignon 1948 (ICZN), Cooksoniella Vozzhennikova 1967]FT93

Deflandreoideae [Ceratiopsieae, Chatangielleae, Deflandreae, Lentinieae, Manumielleae, Nelsonielleae, Palaeocystodinioideae, Senegalinioideae]QS03

Kisselovia Vozzhennikova 1963 [=Kiselevia Vozzhennikova 1960 (nom. inv.), Kisseljovia Vozzhennikova 1961 (nom. inv.)]FT93

Magallanesium asymmetricum (Wilson) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 [=Deflandrea asymmetrica Wilson 1967, Alterbia asymmetrica (Wilson) Lentin & Williams 1976 (nom. illeg.), Senegalinium asymmetricum (Wilson) Stover & Evitt 1978]QS03

Magallanesium balmei (Cookson & Eisenack) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 [=Deflandrea minor Cookson & Eisenack 1960 (nom. illeg.), D. balmei Cookson & Eisenack 1960, Alterbia minor (Cookson & Eisenack) Morgan 1977 (nom. illeg.), Isabelidinium balmei (Cookson & Eisenack) Stover & Evitt 1978, Spinidinium balmei (Cookson & Eisenack) Ioannides 1986]QS03

Magallanesium denticulatum (Pothë de Baldis & Ramos) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 [=Dioxya denticulata Pothë de Baldis & Ramos 1983 non Spinidinium denticulatum Pothë de Baldis & Ramos 1983, Spinidinium argentinum Lentin & Williams 1985]QS03

*Magallanesium macmurdoense (Wilson) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 [=Deflandrea macmurdoense Wilson 1967, Spinidinium macmurdoense (Wilson) Lentin & Williams 1976]QS03

Magallanesium pilatum (Stanley) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 [=Wetzeliella pilata Stanley 1965, Spinidinium pilatum (Stanley) Costa & Downie 1979]QS03

Magallanesium pulchrum (Benson) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 [=Deflandrea pulchra Benson 1976, Spinidinium pulchrum (Benson) Lentin & Williams 1977]QS03

Palaeoperidinioideae [Chichaouadinieae, Luxadinieae, Palaeoperidiniaceae, Palaeoperidinieae, Phthanoperidineae, Subtilisphaeroideae]QS03

Palaeoperidinium Deflandre 1934 [incl. Astrocysta Davey 1970, Pentagonum Vozzhennikova 1963 non Pentagonium Schauer 1843]FT93

Peridiniaceae [Chatangiellaceae, Cooksoniellaceae, Deflandreaceae, Deflandreidae, Endodiniaceae, Hexagoniferaceae, Lithoperidiniaceae, Lithoperidinidae, Nelsoniellaceae, Nelsoniellidae, Peridinidae, Peridiniidae, Peridinitaceae, Phthanoperidiniaceae, Pyxidiellaceae]

Spinidinium echinoideum (Cookson & Eisenack) Lentin & Williams 1976 [=Deflandrea echinoidea Cookson & Eisenack 1960, Vozzhennikovia echinoidea (Cookson & Eisenack) Stover & Evitt 1978]QS03

Spinidinium rhombicum (Cookson & Eisenack) Stover & Evitt 1978 [=Deflandrea rhombica Cookson & Eisenack 1974, S. echinoideum ssp. rhombicum (Cookson & Eisenack) Lentin & Williams 1976]QS03

Volkheimeridium irmoechinatum (Heisecke) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 [=Deflandrea irmoechinata Heisecke 1970, Gonyaulacysta irmoechinata (Heisecke) Lentin & Williams 1976, Spinidinium irmoechinatum (Heisecke) Stover & Evitt 1978]QS03

*Volkheimeridium lanterna (Cookson & Eisenack) Quattrocchio & Sarjeant 2003 [=Spinidinium lanterna Cookson & Eisenack 1970]QS03

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[B08] Beard, K. C. 2008. The oldest North American primate and mammalian biogeography during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 105 (10): 3815–3818.

[CF03] Cruickshank, A. R. I., & R. E. Fordyce. 2003. A new marine reptile (Sauropterygia) from New Zealand: Further evidence for a Late Cretaceous austral radiation of cryptoclidid plesiosaurs. Palaeontology 45 (3): 557–575.

[EB93] Edwards, D., J. G. Baldauf, P. R. Brown, K. J. Dorning, M. Feist, L. T. Gallagher, N. Grambast-Fessard, M. B. Hart, A. J. Powell & R. Riding. 1993. ‘Algae’. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 15–40. Chapman & Hall: London.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G87] Goodman, D. K. 1987. Dinoflagellate cysts in ancient and modern sediments. In: Taylor, F. J. R. (ed.) The Biology of Dinoflagellates pp. 649–722. Blackwell Scientific.

[H75] Häntzschel, W. 1975. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea Suppl. 1. Trace Fossils and Problematica 2nd ed. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[I02] Ibrahim, M. I. A. 2002. Late Albian–Middle Cenomanian palynofacies and palynostratigraphy, Abu Gharadig-5 well, Western Desert, Egypt. Cretaceous Research 23: 775–788.

[K95] Köhler, R. 1995. A new species of the fossil turtle Psephophorus (order Testudines) from the Eocene of the South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 25: 371–384.

[QS03] Quattrocchio, M. E., & W. A. S. Sarjeant. 2003. Dinoflagellates from the Chorrillo Chico Formation (Paleocene) of southern Chile. Ameghiniana 40 (2): 129–153.

[RC02] Riding, J. B., & J. A. Crame. 2002. Aptian to Coniacian (Early–Late Cretaceous) palynostratigraphy of the Gustav Group, James Ross Basin, Antarctica. Cretaceous Research 23: 739–760.

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