Peridiniphycidae

Impagidinium dispertitum, from here.

Belongs within: Peridinoidia.
Contains: Blepharocysta, Peridiniales, Leptodinioideae, Goniodomaceae, Ceratocorys, Cribroperidinioideae, Ceratium, Gonyaulax.

The Peridiniphycidae are a major group of dinoflagellates With a tabulation that accords with, or derives from, a pattern in which there are five or six latitudinal plate series, and which lack a sagittal suture (Adl et al. 2012).

PeridiniphycidaeAS12
    |--+--PeridinialesJG17
    |  `--+--‘Gyrodinium’ dorsumC-SC04
    |     |--BorghiellaceaeJG17
    |     |    |--BaldiniaAS12
    |     |    `--BorghiellaAS12
    |     `--SymbiodiniaceaeJG17
    |          |--+--‘Gymnodinium’ beiiLO03
    |          |  |--‘Gymnodinium’ simplexC-SC04 [=Protodinium simplexS73]
    |          |  `--Polarella glacialisC-SC04
    |          `--+--‘Gymnodinium’ variansC-SC04
    |             `--Symbiodinium Freudenthal 1962C-SC04, FT93
    |                  |--S. corculorumC-SC04
    |                  |--S. microadriaticum Freudenthal 1962FT93 (see below for synonymy)
    |                  `--S. pilosumWC02
    `--+--Shublikodiniaceae (see below for synonymy)FT93
       |    |--Rhaetogonyaulax Sarjeant 1966 [incl. Shublikodinium Wiggins 1973]FT93
       |    |    |--R. arctica (Wiggins 1973) Stover & Evitt 1978FT93
       |    |    `--R. rhaetica (Sarjeant 1963) Loeblich & Loeblich 1968FT93
       |    `--Dapcodinium Evitt 1961FT93
       |         |--D. ovale Below 1987FT93
       |         |--D. polyedricum Below 1987FT93
       |         `--D. priscum Evitt 1961FT93
       `--Gonyaulacales (see below for synonymy)JG17
            |  i. s.: Stephodinium Deflandre 1936FT93
            |           `--S. coronatum Deflandre 1936RC02
            |         Isthmocystis Duxbury 1979FT93
            |           `--I. distincta Duxbury 1979EB93
            |         Coronifera Cookson & Eisenack 1958FT93
            |           |--C. oceanica Cookson & Eisenack 1958I02
            |           `--C. tubulosa Cookson & Eisenack 1974I02
            |         Scriniodinium Klement 1957FT93
            |           |--S. ceratophorum Cookson & Eisenack 1960RC02
            |           `--S. crystallinum (Deflandre 1939) Klement 1960RC02
            |         Actinotheca Cookson & Eisenack 1960FT93
            |           `--A. aphroditae Cookson & Eisenack 1960RC02
            |         Aireiana Cookson & Eisenack 1965FT93
            |         Amphorosphaeridium Davey 1969FT93
            |         Arachnodinium Wilson & Clowes 1982FT93
            |           `--A. antarcticumQS03
            |         Archeotectatum Habib 1972FT93
            |         Barbatacysta Courtinat 1989FT93
            |         Belodinium Cookson & Eisenack 1960FT93
            |         Callaiosphaeridium Davey & Williams 1966 [=Hexasphaera Clarke & Verdier 1967]FT93
            |           `--C. asymmetricum (Deflandre & Courteville) Davey & Williams 1966EB93
            |         Chytroeisphaeridia (Sarjeant 1962) Downie & Sarjeant 1965 (see below for synonymy)FT93
            |           `--C. simplicia Wall 1965S73
            |         Cometodinium Deflandre & Courteville 1939FT93
            |         Compositosphaeridium Dodekova 1974FT93
            |           `--‘Hystrichosphaeridium’ polonicum Górka 1965FT93
            |         Corradinisphaeridium Masure 1986FT93
            |         Diphasiosphaera Duxbury 1980FT93
            |         Discorsia Duxbury 1977FT93
            |         Dissiliodinium Drugg 1978FT93
            |         Emslandia Gerlach 1961FT93
            |           `--E. spiridoides (Benedek 1972) Benedek & Sarjeant 1981FT93
            |         Escharisphaeridia Erkmen & Sarjeant 1980FT93
            |         Fibrocysta Stover & Evitt 1978FT93
            |           |--F. acornuta Norris & Jux 1984EB93
            |           |--‘Lanternosphaeridium’ radiatum Morgenroth 1966FT93
            |           `--F. vectensis (Eaton) Stover & Evitt 1978EB93
            |         Filisphaera Bujak 1984FT93
            |         Foucheria Monteil 1992FT93
            |         Furzidinium Stancliffe 1991FT93
            |         Galeacysta Corradini & Biffi 1988FT93
            |         Gelatia Bujak 1984FT93
            |         Glossodinium Ioannides et al. 1977FT93
            |           `--G. dimorphum Ioannides et al. 1977RC02
            |         Gongylodinium Fenton et al. 1980FT93
            |         Gordiacysta Miles 1990FT93
            |         Habibacysta Head et al. 1989FT93
            |         Helbydinium Snape 1992FT93
            |         Hemiplacophora Cookson & Eisenack 1965FT93
            |         Hemisphaeridium Bujak 1980FT93
            |         Histiophora Klement 1960FT93
            |         Hurunuia Wilson 1984FT93
            |         Hystrichodinium Deflandre 1935 [incl. Heliodinium Alberti 1961]FT93
            |           `--H. pulchrum Deflandre 1935EB93
            |         Hystrichosphaerina Alberti 1961FT93
            |         Invertocysta Edwards 1984FT93
            |           `--I. lacrymosa Edwards 1984EB93
            |         Kaiwaradinium Wilson 1978FT93
            |         Kiokansium Stover & Evitt 1978 [incl. Bacchidinium Davey 1979]FT93
            |           |--K. polypes (Cookson & Eiseneck) Below 1982EB93 (see below for synonymy)
            |           |--K. unituberculatum (Tasch in Tasch et al. 1964) Stover & Evitt 1978RC02
            |           `--K. williamsii Singh 1983FT93
            |         Komewuia Cookson & Eisenack 1969 [incl. Pontiadinium Stover & Evitt 1978]FT93
            |         Lagenorhytis Duxbury 1979 [=Speetonia Duxbury 1977 non Black 1971]FT93
            |         Lanternosphaeridium Morgenroth 1966FT93
            |           `--L. lanosum Morgenroth 1966FT93
            |         Liesbergia Berger 1986FT93
            |         Melitasphaeridium Harland & Hill 1979FT93
            |         Mosaicodinium Dodekova 1990FT93
            |         Muraticysta Head et al. 1989FT93
            |         Nelchinopsis Wiggins 1972 [incl. Alaskadinium Duxbury 1977]FT93
            |         Neodiacrodium Federova-Shakhmundes 1975FT93
            |         Nexosispinum Davey 1979FT93
            |         Pervosphaeridium Yun 1981FT93
            |           `--‘Hystrichosphaeridium’ truncigerum Deflandre 1937FT93
            |         Pilosidinium Courtinat 1989FT93
            |         Polystephanephorus Sarjeant 1961FT93
            |         Protoellipsodinium Davey & Verdier 1971FT93
            |         Pyxidiniopsis Habib 1975FT93
            |           `--P. crassimurata Wilson 1988QS03
            |         Saturnodinium Brinkhuis et al. 1992FT93
            |         Sentusidinium Sarjeant & Stover 1978 [=Tenua Davey 1978 non Eisenack 1958]FT93
            |         Sirmiodiniopsis Drugg 1978 [incl. Arkellidinium Beju 1979]FT93
            |         Surculosphaeridium Davey et al. 1966FT93
            |         ‘Taeniophora’ Klement 1960 non Karst. 1886FT93
            |         Trichodinium Eisenack & Cookson 1960FT93
            |         Vexillocysta Harding 1990FT93
            |         Xenicodinium Klement 1960 [incl. Stomodinium He 1984]FT93
            |         Yalkalpodinium Morgan 1980FT93
            |         LeptodinioideaeFT93
            |         FukuyoaAB19
            |         PentaplacodiniumAB19
            |         Peridiniella Kofoid & Michener 1911AB19, FT93
            |           `--P. catenataT87b [=Gonyaulax catenata (Levander) Kofoid 1911T87b, PA87, Peridinium catenatumS73]
            |--GoniodomaceaeJG17
            `--+--+--‘Amphidinium’ corpulentumC-SC04
               |  `--+--Ceratocoryaceae [Ceratocorydae, Ceratocoryinae, Ceratocorys, Ceratocorythaceae]FT93
               |     |    |--CeratocorysC-SC04
               |     |    `--Maghrebinia Below 1981FT93
               |     |         `--*M. perforata (Clarke & Verdier 1967) Below 1981FT93
               |     `--Protoceratium Bergh 1881JG17, FT93 [incl. Clathrocysta Stein 1883FT93]
               |          |--*P. aceros Bergh 1881SW70
               |          |--P. areolatumSW70
               |          |--P. reticulatum (Claparède & Lachmann 1859) Bütschli 1885FT93 [incl. Operculodinium psilatumS73]
               |          `--P. spinulosumSW70
               `--+--+--CribroperidinioideaeJG17
                  |  `--Ceratiaceae (see below for synonymy)FT93
                  |       |--CeratiumC-SC04
                  |       |--Australisphaera Davey 1978FT93
                  |       |--Balmula Bint 1986FT93
                  |       |--Odontochitinopsis Eisenack 1961FT93
                  |       |--Vesperopsis Bint 1986FT93
                  |       |--Aptea Eisenack 1958 [incl. Doidyx Sarjeant 1966]FT93
                  |       |    `--A. polymorpha Eisenack 1958RC02
                  |       |--Nyktericysta Bint 1986FT93
                  |       |    `--N. davisii Bint 1986FT93
                  |       |--Phoberocysta Millioud 1969FT93
                  |       |    `--P. neocomica (Gocht 1957) Millioud 1969RC02
                  |       |--Xenascus Cookson & Eisenack 1969FT93
                  |       |    |--X. australensis Cookson & Eisenack 1969RC02
                  |       |    `--X. ceratioides (Deflandre) Lentin & Williams 1973I02
                  |       |--Pseudoceratium Gocht 1957 (see below for synonymy)FT93
                  |       |    |--P. ludbrookiaeRC02
                  |       |    |--P. pelliferumT87a
                  |       |    |--P. spitiense Jain & Garg in Jain et al. 1984EB93
                  |       |    `--P. turneriRC02
                  |       |--Endoceratium Vozzhennikova 1965FT93
                  |       |    |--E. dettmanniae (Cookson & Hughes 1964) Stover & Evitt 1978FT93
                  |       |    |--E. exquisitum Morgan 1980RC02
                  |       |    |--E. ludbrookiae (Cookson & Eisenack) Loeblich & Loeblich 1966RC02
                  |       |    `--E. turneri (Cookson & Eisenack) Stover & Evitt 1978RC02
                  |       |--Muderongia Cookson & Eisenack 1958 [incl. Pseudomuderongia Jain & Khowaja-Ateequzzaman 1984]FT93
                  |       |    |--M. australis Helby 1967RC02
                  |       |    |--M. imparilisG87
                  |       |    |--M. macwhaei Cookson & Eisenack 1958RC02
                  |       |    |--M. perforata Alberti 1961EB93
                  |       |    |--M. simplexG87
                  |       |    `--M. tetracantha (Gocht 1957) Alberti 1961RC02
                  |       `--Odontochitina Deflandre 1935FT93
                  |            |--O. ancalaVH02
                  |            |--O. costata Alberti 1961RC02
                  |            |--O. cribropoda Deflandre & Cookson 1955RC02
                  |            |--O. operculata (Wetzel 1933) Deflandre & Cookson 1955RC02
                  |            |--O. porifera Cookson 1956FT93
                  |            |--O. rhakodesVH02
                  |            `--O. singhii Morgan 1980RC02
                  `--+--Crypthecodinium Biecheler 1938C-SC04, FT93 [Crypthecodiniaceae, Crypthecodinidae]
                     |    |--C. cohnii (Seligo 1886) Chatton 1952FT93 (see below for synonymy)
                     |    `--C. setense Biecheler 1938FT93
                     `--GonyaulacoideaeQS03
                          |--GonyaulaxC-SC04
                          |--Spiniferella cornuta (Gerlach 1961) Stover & Hardenboll 1994QS03
                          |--Amylax Meunier 1909FT93
                          |--Catastomocystis Singh 1983FT93
                          |--Ectosphaeropsis Londeix & Jan du Chêne 1988FT93
                          |--Exiguisphaera Duxbury 1979FT93
                          |--Hystrichostrongylon Agelopoulos 1964FT93
                          |--Okerisphaeridium Kunz 1990FT93
                          |--Prionodinium Leffingwell & Morgan 1977FT93
                          |--Pterodinium Eisenack 1958FT93
                          |--Rottnestia Cookson & Eisenack 1961FT93
                          |--Trabeculidium Duxbury 1980FT93
                          |--Tubotuberella Vozzhennikova 1967 (see below for synonymy)FT93
                          |--Unipontidinium Wrenn 1988FT93
                          |--Tectatodinium Wall 1967FT93
                          |    `--T. pellitum Wall 1967EB93
                          |--Achomosphaera Evitt 1963FT93
                          |    `--A. neptuni (Eisenack) Davey & Williams 1966EB93
                          |--Avellodinium Duxbury 1977FT93
                          |    `--A. falsificum Duxbury 1977EB93
                          |--Pentadinium Gerlach 1961 (see below for synonymy)FT93
                          |    `--P. laticinctumG87
                          |--Gonyaulacysta Deflandre 1964FT93
                          |    `--G. jurassica (Deflandre 1939) Norris & Sarjeant 1965FT93
                          |--Acanthogonyaulax (Kofoid 1911) Graham 1942FT93
                          |    `--A. spinifera (Murray & Whiting) Graham 1942 [=Ceratocorys spinifera]S73
                          |--Corrudinium Stover & Evitt 1978FT93
                          |    `--C. incompositum (Drugg 1970) Stover & Evitt 1978FT93
                          |--Bitectatodinium Wilson 1973 [incl. Caledonidinium Reid 1974]FT93
                          |    `--B. tepikiense Wilson 1973FT93
                          |--Ataxiodinium Reid 1974FT93
                          |    `--A. choaneMS02
                          |--Evittosphaerula Manum 1979FT93
                          |    `--E. paratabulata Manum 1979FT93
                          |--Hystrichosphaeropsis Deflandre 1935FT93
                          |    `--H. ovum Deflandre 1935FT93
                          |--Psaligonyaulax Sarjeant 1966FT93
                          |    `--P. deflandrei Sarjeant 1966RC02
                          |--Spiraulax Kofoid 1911FT93
                          |    `--S. kofoidii Graham 1942 (see below for synonymy)S73
                          |--Cannosphaeropsis Wetzel 1933FT93
                          |    |--C. mirabilis Cookson & Eisenack 1958FT93
                          |    `--C. utinensisG87
                          |--Triblastula Wetzel 1933FT93
                          |    |--T. nuda Wetzel 1961FT93
                          |    |--T. tabulata Wetzel 1961FT93
                          |    `--T. utinensis Wetzel 1933FT93
                          |--Nematosphaeropsis Deflandre & Cookson 1955 (see below for synonymy)FT93
                          |    |--N. densiradiata (Cookson & Eisenack 1962) Stover & Evitt 1978RC02
                          |    |--N. labyrinthea (see below for synonymy)FT93
                          |    |--N. lemniscata Bujak 1984FT93
                          |    `--‘Adnatosphaeridium’ reticulense (Pastiels 1848) de Coninck 1969FT93
                          `--Impagidinium Stover & Evitt 1978FT93
                               |--I. aculeatumMS02
                               |--I. cassiculum Wilson 1988QS03
                               |--I. dispertitum (Cookson & Eisenack 1965) Stover & Evitt 1978FT93
                               |--I. pallidumMS02
                               |--I. paradoxumMS02
                               |--I. sphaericum (Wall 1967) Lentin & Williams 1981FT93
                               `--I. waipawaenseQS03
Peridiniphycidae incertae sedis:
  Podolampadaceae [Lissodiniaceae, Lissodinidae, Podolampidae, Podolampinae]AS12
    |--BlepharocystaFT93
    |--Lissodinium Matzenauer 1933FT93
    |--GaarderiellaAS12
    |--HeterobractumAS12
    |--MysticellaAS12
    `--Podolampas Stein 1883 [incl. Parrocelia Gourret 1883]FT93
         |--*P. bipes Stein 1883SW70, FT93
         |--P. antarctica Balech in Balech & El-Sayed 1965S73
         |--P. elegansSW70
         |--P. graeca Athanassopoulos 1931S73
         |--P. palmipesSW70
         |--P. reticulataSW70
         `--P. spiniferSW70
  AmphidomataceaeAB19
    |--Azadinium caudatumAB19, G18 (see below for synonymy)
    `--Amphidoma Stein 1883FT93
         `--A. acuminatum [=Amphidinium (l. c.) acuminata]S73
  Centrodinium Kofoid 1907FT93 [CentrodiniaceaeAB19]
    |--C. deflexoides Balech 1962S73
    |--C. eminens Böhm 1933S73
    |--C. intermedium Pavillard 1930S73
    |--C. maximum Pavillard 1930S73
    `--C. pulchrum Böhm 1933S73
Nomen invalidum: Podolampas maxima Balech 1967 [=P. maximum]S73

Azadinium caudatumAB19, G18 [=Amphidoma caudatum Halldal 1953G18, S73; incl. Oxytoxum margalefii Rampi 1969G18, O. tonollii Rampi 1969G18]

Ceratiaceae [Ceratidae, Ceratieae, Ceratiinae, Ceratiineae, Endoceratiaceae, Muderongiaceae, Muderongidae, Odontochitinaceae, Pseudoceratiaceae, Pseudoceratidae]FT93

Chytroeisphaeridia (Sarjeant 1962) Downie & Sarjeant 1965 [incl. Tapeinosphaeridium Ioannides et al. 1977]FT93

Crypthecodinium cohnii (Seligo 1886) Chatton 1952FT93 [=Glenodinium cohniiS73, Gyrodinium cohniiTP87; incl. Gymnodinium fucorum Küster 1908T87a]

Gonyaulacales [Achilleodiniaceae, Actinothecaceae, Apteodinaceae, Apteodinidae, Avellodiniaceae, Belodiniaceae, Belodinidae, Cannosphaeropsitaceae, Compositosphaeraceae, Cordosphaeridiaceae, Coroniferaceae, Ctenidodiniaceae, Dichadogonyaulaceae, Endoscriniaceae, Eodiniaceae, Eodinidae, Florentiniaceae, Goniaulacaceae, Gonyaulacaceae, Gonyaulaceae, Gonyaulacida, Gonyaulacidae, Gonyaulacineae, Gonyaulacoidia, Gonyaulacystaceae, Gonyaulacystineae, Hystrichodiniaceae, Hystrichodinidae, Hystrichokolpomaceae, Hystrichosphaeraceae, Hystrichosphaeridae, Lingulodiniaceae, Lithodiniaceae, Nelchinopsaceae, Protoceratiaceae, Scriniodiniaceae, Silicisphaeraceae, Spiniferitaceae, Stephodiniaceae, Stephodinidae, Systematophoraceae, Thalassiphoraceae]JG17

Kiokansium polypes (Cookson & Eiseneck) Below 1982EB93 [=Cleistosphaeridium polypes (Cookson & Eisenack 1962) Davey 1969FT93]

Nematosphaeropsis Deflandre & Cookson 1955 [incl. Coccopterum Silva 1970, Pterococcus Lohmann 1904 nec Pallas 1773 nec Hasskarl 1842]FT93

Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthea [=Pterococcus labyrinthus, *Coccopterum labyrinthum (Ostenfeld 1903) Silva 1970]FT93

Pentadinium Gerlach 1961 [incl. Planinosphaeridium Eisenack 1965, Toenisbergia Benedek et al. 1982]FT93

Pseudoceratium Gocht 1957 [incl. Eopseudoceratium (Neale & Sarjeant 1962) Lentin & Williams 1973]FT93

Shublikodiniaceae [Dapcodinieae, Dapcodiniinae, Rhaetogonyaulacaceae, Rhaetogonyaulacinae, Rhaetogonyaulacineae, Rhaetogonyaulacoideae]FT93

Spiraulax kofoidii Graham 1942 [=Spiraulax joliffei non Gonyaulax joliffei, Spiraulaxina kofoidii (Graham) Loeblich 1970]S73

Symbiodinium microadriaticum Freudenthal 1962FT93 [=Gymnodinium microadriaticumP87, Zooxanthella microadriaticaFT93]

Tubotuberella Vozzhennikova 1967 [incl. Dimidiadinium Brideaux 1977, Glabridinium Brideaux 1977]FT93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[AB19] Adl, S. M., D. Bass, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov, S. Agatha, C. Berney, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, P. Cárdenas, I. Čepička, L. Chistyakova, J. del Campo, M. Dunthorn, B. Edvardsen, Y. Eglit, L. Guillou, V. Hampl, A. A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, T. Y. James, A. Karnkowska, S. Karpov, E. Kim, M. Kolisko, A. Kudryavtsev, D. J. G. Lahr, E. Lara, L. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, D. G. Mann, R. Massana, E. A. D. Mitchell, C. Morrow, J. S. Park, J. W. Pawlowski, M. J. Powell, D. J. Richter, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, S. Shimano, F. W. Spiegel, G. Torruella, N. Youssef, V. Zlatogursky & Q. Zhang. 2019. Revisions to the classification, nomenclature, and diversity of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 66: 4–119.

[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[C-SC04] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E. Chao. 2004. Protalveolate phylogeny and systematics and the origins of Sporozoa and dinoflagellates (phylum Myzozoa nom. nov.) European Journal of Protistology 40: 185–212.

[EB93] Edwards, D., J. G. Baldauf, P. R. Brown, K. J. Dorning, M. Feist, L. T. Gallagher, N. Grambast-Fessard, M. B. Hart, A. J. Powell & R. Riding. 1993. ‘Algae’. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 15–40. Chapman & Hall: London.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G18] Gómez, F. 2018. A review on the synonymy of the dinoflagellate genera Oxytoxum and Corythodinium (Oxytoxaceae, Dinophyceae). Nova Hedwigia 108 (1–2): 141–165.

[G87] Goodman, D. K. 1987. Dinoflagellate cysts in ancient and modern sediments. In: Taylor, F. J. R. (ed.) The Biology of Dinoflagellates pp. 649–722. Blackwell Scientific.

[I02] Ibrahim, M. I. A. 2002. Late Albian-Middle Cenomanian palynofacies and palynostratigraphy, Abu Gharadig-5 well, Western Desert, Egypt. Cretaceous Research 23: 775–788.

[JG17] Janouškovec, J., G. S. Gavelis, F. Burki, D. Dinh, T. R. Bachvaroff, S. G. Gornik, K. J. Bright, B. Imanian, S. L. Strom, C. F. Delwiche, R. F. Waller, R. A. Fensome, B. S. Leander, F. L. Rohwer & J. F. Saldarriaga. 2017. Major transitions in dinoflagellate evolution unveiled by phylotranscriptomics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 114 (2): E171–E180.

[LO03] Lee, J. J., R. Olea, M. Cevasco, X. Pochon, M. Correia, M. Shpigel & J. Pawlowski. 2003. A marine dinoflagellate, Amphidinium eilatiensis n. sp., from the benthos of a mariculture sedimentation pond in Eilat, Israel. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 50 (6): 439–448.

[MS02] Marret, F., & J. Scourse. 2002. Control of modern dinoflagellate cyst distribution in the Irish and Celtic seas by seasonal stratification dynamics. Marine Micropaleontology 47: 101–116.

[PA87] Pfiester, L. A., & D. M. Anderson. 1987. Dinoflagellate reproduction. In: Taylor, F. J. R. (ed.) The Biology of Dinoflagellates pp. 611–648. Blackwell Scientific.

[P87] Prézelin, B. B. 1987. Photosynthetic physiology of dinoflagellates. In: Taylor, F. J. R. (ed.) The Biology of Dinoflagellates pp. 174–223. Blackwell Scientific.

[QS03] Quattrocchio, M. E., & W. A. S. Sarjeant. 2003. Dinoflagellates from the Chorrillo Chico Formation (Paleocene) of southern Chile. Ameghiniana 40 (2): 129–153.

[RC02] Riding, J. B., & J. A. Crame. 2002. Aptian to Coniacian (Early–Late Cretaceous) palynostratigraphy of the Gustav Group, James Ross Basin, Antarctica. Cretaceous Research 23: 739–760.

[S73] Sournia, A. 1973. Catalogue des espèces et taxons infraspécifiques de Dinoflagellés marins actuels publiés depuis la révision de J. Schiller. I. Dinoflagellés libres. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 48: 1–92.

[SW70] Steidinger, K. A., & J. Williams. 1970. Dinoflagellates. Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 2: 1–251.

[T87a] Taylor, F. J. R. 1987a. General group characteristics; special features of interest; short history of dinoflagellate study. In: Taylor, F. J. R. (ed.) The Biology of Dinoflagellates pp. 1–23. Blackwell Scientific.

[T87b] Taylor, F. J. R. 1987b. Dinoflagellate morphology. In: Taylor, F. J. R. (ed.) The Biology of Dinoflagellates pp. 24–91. Blackwell Scientific.

[TP87] Taylor, F. J. R., & U. Pollingher. 1987. Ecology of dinoflagellates. In: Taylor, F. J. R. (ed.) The Biology of Dinoflagellates pp. 398–529. Blackwell Scientific.

[VH02] Vallejo, C., P. A. Hochuli, W. Winkler & K. von Salis. 2002. Palynological and sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Napo Group in the Pungarayacu 30 well, sub-Andean zone, Ecuador. Cretaceous Research 23: 845–859.

[WC02] Wright, A.-D. G., & A. Colorni. 2002. Taxonomic re-assignment of Cryptocaryon irritans, a marine fish parasite. European Journal of Protistology 37: 375–378.

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