River lampreys Lampetra ayresii, from Jolley (2016).

Belongs within: Cyclostomata.

The Petromyzontidae, lampreys, are eel-like vertebrates with a filter-feeding freshwater larval stage that develops into non-feeding or parasitic, often marine, adults (Bond 1996).

Characters (from Bond 1996): Body eel-like, dorsal and caudal fins present, lacking paired fins or scales; eyes lateral; mouth ventral, consisting of a circular disc set with horny teeth; nasohypophyseal opening between eyes. Skeleton cartilaginous, not well developed except skull and branchial region; vertebral centra absent, neural arches rudimentary. Myotomes not divided into epaxial and hypaxial muscles. Internal labyrinth bearing ciliated epithelium; left duct of Cuvier absent; dorsal and ventral roots of spinal nerves not connected. Gills in adults opening into respiratory tube beginning at mouth, extending under oesophagus, ending at seventh pair of gills; gills in larvae opening into long pharynx that is cut off posteriorly during metamorphosis. Larvae eyeless, toothless.

<==Petromyzontidae [Petromyzonidae]
    |  i. s.: CaspiomyzonB96
    |         Velasia Gray 1851 [incl. Neomordacia Castelnau 1872]O96
    |           |--*V. chilensis Gray 1851 [=Geotria chilensis]O96
    |           `--V. stenostomus [incl. Neomordacia howittii Castelnau 1873, Yarra singularis Castelnau 1873]O96
    |         Exomegas Gill 1882O96
    |           `--*E. macrostomus (Burmeister 1868) [=Petromyzon macrostomus]O96
    |--Geotria Gray 1851O96 [GeotriinaeB96]
    |    `--*G. australis Gray 1851 [incl. G. allporti Günther 1871]O96
    |--Mordacia Gray 1851O96 [incl. Caragola Gray 1851O96; Caragolinae, Mordaciidae, MordaciinaeB96]
    |    |--*M. mordax (Richardson 1845) [=Petromyzon mordax, Caragola mordax]O96
    |    |--‘Caragola’ lapicida [incl. P. acutidens Philippi 1864, P. anwandteri Philippi 1863]O96
    |    `--M. praecoxB96
         |--Petromyzon Linnaeus 1758L58
         |    |--P. branchialis Linnaeus 1758L58
         |    |--P. fluviatilis Linnaeus 1758L58
         |    `--P. marinus Linnaeus 1758FM02
         |    |--E. danfordi (Regan 1911)SE08
         |    |--E. mariae (Berg 1931)SE08
         |    `--E. vladykoviB96
         |    |--I. bdelliumB96
         |    |--I. castaneusB96
         |    |--I. fossorB96
         |    |--I. gageiB96
         |    |--I. greeleyiB96
         |    `--I. unicuspisB96
              |  i. s.: L. aepypteraSBW95
              |         L. fluviatilis (Linnaeus 1758)SS07
              |         L. kessleri Anikin 1905I92
              |         L. minimaB96
              |         L. planeri (Bloch 1784)SS07
              |         L. richardsoniB96
              |--L. (Lampetra) ayresiiH71
              |--L. (Entosphenus)H71
              |    |--L. (E.) lethophaga Hubbs 1971H71
              |    `--L. (E.) tridentata Richardson 1836H71, I92 [=Entosphenus tridentatusT90; incl. E. tridentatus ciliatusH71]
              `--L. (Lethenteron)H71
                   |--L. (L.) appendixSBW95, MS16
                   |--L. (L.) lamottenii [=Entosphenus lamottenii]H71
                   |--L. (L.) japonicaH71 [=Entosphenus japonicusSBM11, Lethenteron japonicumPB07]
                   |--L. (L.) reissneriT90, PB07
                   `--L. (L.) zanandreaiH71

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B96] Bond, C. E. 1996. Biology of Fishes 2nd ed. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth.

[FM02] Flescher, D., & F. H. Martini. 2002. Lampreys. Family Petromyzontidae. In: Collette, B. B., & G. Klein-MacPhee (eds) Bigelow and Schroeder’s Fishes of the Gulf of Maine 3rd ed. pp. 16–19. Smithsonian Institute Press: Washington.

[H71] Hubbs, C. L. 1971. Lampetra (Entosphenus) lethophaga, new species, the nonparasitic derivative of the Pacific lamprey. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 16 (6): 125–164.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MS16] McCoy, V. E., E. E. Saupe, J. C. Lamsdell, L. G. Tarhan, S. McMahon, S. Lidgard, P. Mayer, C. D. Whalen, C. Soriano, L. Finney, S. Vogt, E. G. Clark, R. P. Anderson, H. Petermann, E. R. Locatelli & D. E. G. Briggs. 2016. The ‘Tully monster’ is a vertebrate. Nature 532: 496–499.

[O96] Ogilby, J. D. 1896. A monograph of the Australian Marsipobranchii. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (3): 388–426.

[PB07] Philippe, H., H. Brinkmann, P. Martinez, M. Riutort & J. Baguña. 2007. Acoel flatworms are not Platyhelminthes: evidence from phylogenomics. PloS One 2 (8): e717.

[SS07] Schreiber, A., & R. Sosat. 2007. The genetic population structure of the Eurasian fine-scaled minnow, Phoxinus phoxinus (Linnaeus 1758), in the contact area of the upper Rhine and Danube rivers (southwestern Germany) (Osteichthyes, Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 195–211.

[SE08] Sevcsik, A., & T. Erös. 2008. A revised catalogue of freshwater fishes of Hungary and the neighbouring countries in the Hungarian Natural History Museum (Pisces). Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 331–383.

[SBM11] Solomon, E. P., L. R. Berg & D. W. Martin (eds) 2011. Biology 9th ed. Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

[SBW95] Stauffer, J. R., Jr, J. M. Boltz & L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146: 1–389.

[T90] Taguchi, S. 1990. Nihon no Sakana. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *