Christmas bells Blandfordia grandiflora, copyright John Tann.

Belongs within: Lilianae.
Contains: Pandanales, Dioscoreales, Liliales, Commelinidae, Orchidaceae, Boryaceae, Asteliaceae, Hypoxidaceae, Iridaceae, HemerocallidaceaeXanthorrhoea, Asphodelaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Alliaceae, Laxmanniaceae, Asparagaceae, Eriospermum, Ruscaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Agavaceae, Anthericaceae.

The Petrosaviidae are a clade of monocotyledons united by molecular phylogenies, defined by Cantino et al. (2007) as the least inclusive clade containing Typha latifolia, Lilium regale and Petrosavia stellaris but not Acorus calamus or Gymnostachys anceps. Members of this clade have mostly been assigned in the past to the subclasses Liliidae and Commelinidae, with species of Liliidae often having showy trimerous flowers, but phylogenetic studies indicate that the ‘Liliidae’ are paraphyletic with regard to the Commelinidae. Possible synapomorphies for the Petrosaviidae are simple, amylophobic starch grains; leaf blades developing basipetally from hyperphyll/hypophyll junction; an epidermis with bulliform cells; anomocytic stomata; and the absence of colleters. Petrosaviids excluding the basal Petrosaviaceae may be united by the absence of a nucellar cap, and a nuclear endosperm (Angiosperm Phylogeny Website).

The Asparagales are a diverse clade within the Petrosaviidae that typically have leaves in a tight rosette, either basally or at the end of a caulescent stem.

<==Petrosaviidae [Bromelianae, Haemodorales, Liliidae]CD07
    |--Petrosaviaceae [Petrosaviales, Petrosavianae]DS04
    |    |--Japonolirion osenseDS04
    |    `--Petrosavia stellaris Becc. 1871CD07
       |  `--DioscorealesAPG16
       `--Liliiflorae [Baccatae, Capsulares, Chlorophyteae, Coronarieae, Xanthorrheae]J87
            |  i. s.: Roxburghia [Roxburghiaceae]B78
            |           `--R. javanicaB78
            |                |--R. j. var. javanicaB78
            |                `--R. j. var. australiana Bentham 1878 [incl. Dioscorea lucida]B78
               `--Asparagales [Anthericeae, Asparageae, Bowieae, Caesieae, Euasparageae, Hemerocallideae, Orchidales]APG16
                    |  i. s.: MaianthemumSR07
                    |           |--M. bifoliumC55
                    |           |--M. canadenseM73
                    |           |    |--M. c. var. canadenseV72
                    |           |    `--M. c. var. interiusV72
                    |           `--M. dilatatumH93
                    |         LiliaciditesRG07
                    |           |--L. intermediusRG07
                    |           |--L. kaitangataensisRG07
                    |           |--L. minutusRG07
                    |           `--L. pollucibilisRG07
                       |  `--+--+--AsteliaceaeRG07
                       |     |  `--+--Lanaria [Lanariaceae]RG07
                       |     |     `--HypoxidaceaeRG07
                       |     `--Blandfordia Smith 1804 (nom. cons.)DS04, CC87 [Blandfordiaceae]
                       |          |--*B. nobilis Smith 1804 (see below for synonymy)CC87
                       |          |--B. cunninghamii Lindley 1845 [incl. B. grandiflora var. elongata Benth. 1878]CC87
                       |          |--B. × flammea-elegans Smith 1874 [B. cunninghamii × B. grandiflora]CC87
                       |          |--B. grandiflora Br. 1810 (see below for synonymy)CC87
                       |          `--B. punicea (Labill.) Sweet 1830 (see below for synonymy)CC87
                          `--+--+--IxiolirionDS04 [IxioliriaceaeEN20, Ixiolirionaceae]
                             |  |    `--I. tataricumDS04
                             |  `--TecophilaeaceaeEN20
                             |       |--Tecophilaea cyanocrocusDS04
                             |       `--Eremolirion amboensis [=Cyanella amboensis]CV06
                             `--+--Doryanthes Corrêa 1802 [Doryanthaceae]EN20
                                |    |--*D. excelsa Corrêa 1802 (see below for synonymy)EN20
                                |    `--D. palmeri Hill ex Bentham 1873 (see below for synonymy)EN20
                                   `--+--Xeronema Brong. & Gris 1864ME70 [XeronemataceaeEN20]
                                      |    |--X. callistemon Oliver 1926ME70
                                      |    |    |--X. c. var. callistemonME70
                                      |    |    `--X. c. var. bracteosa Moore 1969ME70
                                      |    `--X. mooreiCR00
                                         |  `--+--XanthorrhoeaEN20
                                         |     `--AsphodelaceaeEN20
                                            |  |  `--AlliaceaeCR00
                                            |  `--Agapanthus L’Hér. 1788 (nom. cons.)CC87 [AgapanthaceaeCR00, Agapantheae]
                                            |       |--A. africanus [incl. A. umbellatus L’Hér. 1788 (nom. illeg.)]CC87
                                            |       `--A. praecox Willd. 1809CC87
                                            |            |--A. p. ssp. praecoxCC87
                                            |            `--A. p. ssp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton 1965 (see below for synonymy)CC87
                                               |  `--+--AsparagaceaeEN20
                                               |     `--+--EriospermumEN20
                                               |        `--RuscaceaeEN20
                                                  `--+--+--AphyllanthesEN20 [AphyllanthaceaeCR00]
                                                     |  `--HyacinthaceaeCR00
                                                     `--+--AnemarrhenaJS02 [AnemarrhenaceaeCR00]
                                                        |    `--A. asphodeloidesJS02
                                                           `--+--BehniaEN20 [BehniaceaeCR00]
                                                              `--+--HerreriaEN20 [HerreriaceaeCR00]

Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Leighton) Leighton 1965 [=A. orientalis Leighton 1938]CC87

Blandfordia grandiflora Br. 1810 [incl. B. aurea Hook. 1869, B. flammea var. aurea Bailey 1883, B. flammea Lindley ex Paxton 1849, B. intermedia Herbert in Lindley 1845, B. grandiflora var. intermedia (Herbert) Baker 1871, B. princeps Smith 1875, B. flammea var. princeps (Smith) Baker 1876]CC87

*Blandfordia nobilis Smith 1804 [incl. B. nobilis var. imperialis Miller & Norman Taylor in Bailey 1914]CC87

Blandfordia punicea (Labill.) Sweet 1830 [=Aletris punicea Labill. 1805; incl. B. backhousii Lindley 1845, B. grandiflora var. backhousii (Lindley) Hook. 1858, B. marginata Herbert in Lindley 1842, B. grandiflora var. marginata (Herbert) Hook. 1858]CC87

*Doryanthes excelsa Corrêa 1802 [incl. Furcraea australis Haworth 1812, Agave australis (Haworth) Steudel 1821]EN20

Doryanthes palmeri Hill ex Bentham 1873 [=D. excelsa var. palmeri (Hill ex Bentham) Bailey 1883; incl. D. guilfoylei Bailey 1893, D. excelsa var. guilfoylei (Bailey) Bailey 1902, D. larkinii Moore 1885, D. palmeri var. larkinii (Moore) Moore & Betche 1893]EN20

*Type species of generic name indicated


[APG16] Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. 2016. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181: 1–20.

[B78] Bentham, G. 1878. Flora Australiensis: A description of the plants of the Australian Territory vol. 7. Roxburghiaceae to Filices. L. Reeve & Co.: London.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[CR00] Chase, M. W., P. J. Rudall, M. F. Fay & K. L. Stobart. 2000. Xeronemataceae, a new family of asparagoid lilies from New Caledonia and New Zealand. Kew Bulletin 55: 865–870.

[CC87] Clifford, H. T., J. G. Conran, J. B. Williams, R. J. F. Henderson, H. J. Hewson, E. M. Watson, G. J. Keighery, D. M. Churchill, I. R. H. Telford, A. Thongpukdee, N. H. Brittan, A. S. George, W. T. Stearn & T. D. Macfarlane. 1987. Liliaceae. Flora of Australia 45: 148–419.

[CV06] Craven, P., & P. Vorster. 2006. Patterns of plant diversity and endemism in Namibia. Bothalia 36 (2): 175–189.

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[EN20] Eggli, U., & R. Nyffeler (eds) 2020. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants: Monocotyledons 2nd ed. Springer.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[JS02] Jensen, S. R., & J. Schripsema. 2002. Chemotaxonomy and pharmacology of Gentianaceae. In: Struwe, L., & V. A. Albert (eds) Gentianaceae: Systematics and Natural History pp. 573–631. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[M73] Mason, L. G. 1973. The habitat and phenetic variation in Phymata americana Melin (Heteroptera). Systematic Zoology 22 (3): 271–279.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[RG07] Ramírez, S. R., B. Gravendeel, R. B. Singer, C. R. Marshall & N. E. Pierce. 2007. Dating the origin of the Orchidaceae from a fossil orchid with its pollinator. Nature 448: 1042–1045.

[SR07] Saarela, J. M., H. S. Rai, J. A. Doyle, P. K. Endress, S. Mathews, A. D. Marchant, B. G. Briggs & S. W. Graham. 2007. Hydatellaceae identified as a new branch near the base of the angiosperm phylogenetic tree. Nature 446: 312–315.

[V72] Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

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