Phacopida

Eccoptochile mariana, from the American Museum of Natural History.

Belongs within: Libristoma.
Contains: Calymenidae, Encrinuridae, Sphaerexochinae, Eccoptochilinae, Pilekiinae, Cheirurinae, Phacopidae, Dalmanitidae.

The Phacopida are a group of trilobites known from the Ordovician to the Devonian. Most members of this group are distinguished by the possession of proparian facial sutures, with the suture emerging in front of the genal angle. They are divided between the Phacopina, with a broadly anteriorly expanded glabella and schizochroal eyes, and the Cheirurina, with four pairs of glabellar furrows, small holochroal eyes and a spiny pygidium (Prothero 1998).

<==Phacopida
    |  i. s.: NephranopsL-AF12
    |         RabienopsL-AF12
    |--Calymenina [Calymenacea]F90
    |    |  i. s.: Flexicalymene meekiP98
    |    |         Prionocheilus Rouault 1847 [incl. Pharostoma; Pharostomatinae]F90
    |    |         NeseuretusF90
    |    |         SalterocorypheF90
    |    |         ProtocalymeneF90
    |    |--CalymenidaeRC93
    |    `--HomalonotidaeRC93
    |         |--Homalonotus Koenig 1825C92
    |         |--TrimerusJB12
    |         |--Bavarilla Barrande 1868RC93, F90
    |         |    `--B. hofensisRC93
    |         |--Dipleura dekayiRC93
    |         `--PlaesiacomiaF90
    `--+--Cheirurina [Cheiruracea, Cheiruroidea]F90
       |    |--EncrinuridaeRC93
       |    |--Diaphanometopidae [Diaphanometopinae]RC93
       |    |    |--Gyrometopus Jaanusson 1975RC93, F90
       |    |    |    `--G. lineatus (Angelin 1854)RC93
       |    |    `--Diaphanometopus volborthi Schmidt 1881RC93
       |    |--CheiruridaePVP85
       |    |    |  i. s.: Krattaspis Öpik 1937PVP85
       |    |    |--SphaerexochinaePVP85
       |    |    |--EccoptochilinaePVP85
       |    |    `--+--PilekiinaePVP85
       |    |       `--CheirurinaePVP85
       |    |--Staurocephalus [Staurocephalidae]RC93
       |    |    |--S. azuella Šnajdr 1980RC93
       |    |    |--S. clavifrons Angelin 1854RZJ04
       |    |    |--S. mitchelli Chatterton & Campbell 1980RC93
       |    |    |--S. murchisoniF71
       |    |    `--S. pilafrons Owen & Bruton 1980RC93
       |    `--PliomeridaePVP85
       |         |  i. s.: Emsurella Rosova 1960PVP85
       |         |           `--E. humilla Rosova 1960PVP85
       |         |         Pseudocybele nasutaFO99, J79
       |         |         Pliomerellus Chugaeva 1973PVP85
       |         |         PliomerinaJB12
       |         |         Placoparia (Hawleia) prantli Kielan 1959RC93
       |         `--ProtopliomeropinaePVP85
       |              |--Protopliomerops Kobayashi 1934PVP85
       |              `--Rossaspis Harrington 1957PVP85
       |                   `--R. superciliosaJ79
       `--Phacopina [Acastacea]F90
            |  i. s.: Baniaspis Destombes 1972RC93
            |--PhacopidaeL-AF12
            |--Prosopiscus [Prosopiscidae]RC93
            |    |--P. latusRC93
            |    `--P. praecox Fortey & Shergold 1983RC93
            |--PterygometopidaeRC93
            |    |--CalyptaulaxJB12
            |    |--Podowrinella straitonensis (Lamont 1965)RC93
            |    `--PterygometopusRC93
            |         |--P. borni (Dean 1966)RC93
            |         |--P. bredensis Weber 1948RC93
            |         `--P. sclerops (Dalman 1827)RC93
            |--SynphoriidaeRC93
            |    |--LygdozoonRC93
            |    |--Trypaulites calypso (Hall 1861)RC93
            |    |--Coronura marylandicus (Prosser & Kindle 1913)RC93
            |    `--Delops nobilisRC93
            |         |--D. n. nobilisRC93
            |         `--D. n. marri Rickards 1965RC93
            |--DalmanitidaeRC93
            `--CalmoniidaeRC93
                 |--CalmoniinaeRC93
                 |--AcastavinaeRC93
                 |--Kloucekia [Kloucekiinae]RC93
                 |    `--K. drevermanni Hammann 1972RC93
                 |--Acastinae [Acastidae]RC93
                 |    |--AcasteJB12
                 |    `--AcastellaJB12
                 `--AsteropyginaeRC93
                      |--GreenopsP98
                      `--Neocalmonia (Bradocryphaeus) occidentalis (Whidborne 1897)RC93, L-AF12, RC93

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F90] Fortey, R. A. 1990. Ontogeny, hypostome attachment and trilobite classification. Palaeontology 33 (3): 529–576.

[FO99] Fortey, R. A., & R. M. Owens. 1999. Feeding habits in trilobites. Palaeontology 42 (3): 429–465.

[J79] Jaanusson, V. 1979. Ordovician. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A136–A166. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[JB12] Johnson, M. E., & B. G. Baarli. 2012. Development of intertidal biotas through Phanerozoic time. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 63–128. Springer.

[L-AF12] Lerosey-Aubril, R., & R. Feist. 2012. Quantitative approach to diversity and decline in late Palaeozoic trilobites. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 535–555. Springer.

[PVP85] Přibyl, A., J. Vaněk & I. Pek. 1985. Phylogeny and taxonomy of family Cheiruridae (Trilobita). Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis Facultas Rerum Naturalium Geographica-Geologica XXIV 83: 107–193.

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[RC93] Romano, M., W. T. Chang, W. T. Dean, G. D. Edgecombe, R. A. Fortey, D. J. Holloway, P. D. Lane, A. W. Owen, R. M. Owens, A. R. Palmer, A. W. A. Rushton, J. H. Shergold, D. J. Siveter & M. A. Whyte. 1993. Arthropoda (Trilobita). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 279–296. Chapman & Hall: London.

[RZJ04] Rong, J.-Y., R.-B. Zhan & J. Jin. 2004. The Late Odovician and Early Silurian pentameride brachiopod Holorhynchus Kiaer, 1902 from north China. Journal of Paleontology 78 (2): 287–299.

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