Section of Aulographis candelabrum, from Haeckel (1887).

Belongs within: Monadofilosa.

The Phaeodarea are a group of amoeboid organisms that commonly possess a skeleton of amorphous silica bound by organic material.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Central capsule with thickened, double-layered, capsular wall containing two kinds of pores or openings; large opening known as an “astropylum” or oral pore with a protruding mass of cytoplasm, and smaller, typically lateral openings, as “parapylae”, with thinner protruding strands of cytoplasm; dense mass of darkly pigmented granular cytoplasm, the “phaeodium,” containing undigested debris, suspended in the extracapsulum; mineral skeletons, when present, composed of scattered spicules or hollow silica bars, joined by organic material; a wide variety of forms, including geodesic frameworks, spherical to polyhedral shells, or more solid, porous clam-shaped, bivalve shells; tubular mitochondrial cristae.

<==Phaeodarea [Tripylea]
    |--Phaeocystina [Aulacanthida, Phaeocystida]AS12
    |    |--Aulacantha scolymanthaDO17
    |    |--CannoraphisAS12
    |    `--AulographisAS12
    |         |--A. ancorataH04
    |         |--A. asteriscusH04
    |         |--A. bovicornisH04
    |         |--A. candelabrumH04
    |         |--A. furculaH04
    |         |--A. pulvinataH04
    |         |--A. triglochinH04
    |         `--A. verticillataH04
       |    |--Conchoceras cornutumH04
       |    |--Conchonia quadricornisH04
       |    |--Coelographis reginaAS12, H04
       |    |--Coelospathis ancorataH04
       |    |--ConchelliumAS12
       |    |--ConchopsisAS12
       |    `--Coelodendrum [Phaeodendrida]DO17
       |         `--C. ramosissimumBM05
            |  i. s.: Auloscena mirabilisH04
            |         SagenoscenaH04
            |           |--S. ornataH04
            |           `--S. stellataH04
            |         CannosphaeraAS12
            |         SagosphaeraAS12
                 |--Aulosphaera trigonopaDO17
                 `--Campbellella Loeblich & Tappan 1961 (see below for synonymy)LT61
                      `--*C. hexagonia (Haeckel 1887) [=*Aulonia hexagonia]LT61
Phaeodarea incertae sedis:
    |--Challengeron Haeckel 1887AS12, AA05
    |--Haeckeliana porcellanaAS12, H04
    |--Medusetta tetranemaAS12, H04
  Euphysetta nathorstii Cleve 1899BC98
  Porospatis halostoma (Cleve 1899)BC98
  Circogonia icosahedraH04
  Circostephanus coronariusH04
  Cortinetta tripodiscusH04
  Challengeriacea [Challengerida, Challengeriicae]LT61
    |--Challengeria [Challengeridae]H04
    |    `--C. murrayiH04
    `--Lirella Ehrenberg 1872 (see below for synonymy)LT61
         |--*L. baileyi Ehrenberg 1872 (see below for synonymy)LT61
         |--L. melo (Cleve 1899)BC98 [=*Beroetta meloLT61]
         `--L. seriata (Ehrenberg 1872) [=Difflugia (Lirella) seriata, *Eucadium seriatum]LT61

Campbellella Loeblich & Tappan 1961 [=Aulonia Haeckel 1887 non Koch 1847; Aulonida, Auloniinae, Campbellellinae]LT61

Lirella Ehrenberg 1872 [=Cadium Bailey 1856 non Link 1807, Cadiumella Strand 1928, Cadimella (l. c.); incl. Beroetta Cleve 1899, Eucadium Ehrenberg 1872; Cadiidae, Lirellidae]LT61

*Lirella baileyi Ehrenberg 1872 [=Cadium marinum Bailey 1856 non Difflugia marina Bailey 1856, *Cadiumella marina, Difflugia (Lirella) marina]LT61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[AA05] Afanasieva, M. S., E. O. Amon, Y. V. Agarkov & D. S. Boltovskoy. 2005. Radiolarians in the geological record. Paleontological Journal 39 (Suppl. 3): S135–S392.

[BM05] Bass, D., D. Moreira, P. López-García, S. Polet, E. E. Chao, S. von der Heyden, J. Pawlowski & T. Cavalier-Smith. 2005. Polyubiquitin insertions and the phylogeny of Cercozoa and Rhizaria. Protist 156: 149–161.

[BC98] Bjørklund, K. R., G. Cortese, N. Swanberg & H. J. Schrader. 1998. Radiolarian faunal provinces in surface sediments of the Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian (GIN) Seas. Marine Micropalaeontology 35: 105–140.

[DO17] Dumack, K., H. Öztoprak, L. Rüger & M. Bonkowski. 2017. Shedding light on the polyphyletic thecate amoeba genus Plagiophrys: transition of some of its species to Rhizaspis (Tectofilosida, Thecofilosea, Cercozoa) and the establishment of Sacciforma gen. nov. and Rhogostomidae fam. nov. (Cryomonadida, Thecofilosea, Cercozoa). Protist 168: 92–108.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HW93] Hart, M. B., & C. L. Williams. 1993. Protozoa. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 43–70. Chapman & Hall: London.

[LT61] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1961. Remarks on the systematics of the Sarkodina (Protozoa), renamed homonyms and new and validated genera. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 213–234.

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