Phaeophyceae

Ishige okamurae, copyright Yukihiko Serisawa.
Belongs within: Chrysista.
Contains: Dictyotaceae, Sphacelariales, Fucophycidae.

The Phaeophyceae, brown algae, are a group of marine, multicellular algae with thalli containing pigments that give them an olive-green to black-brown coloration.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Filamentous, syntagmatic, parenchymatous or ciliated; swimming cells with two cilia usually inserted laterally—one anteriorly directed and one posteriorly directed; usually four microtubular kinetosomal roots but no striated kinetosomal root or rhizoplast; ciliary transitional helix typically with six gyres located above the major transitional plate; no paraciliary rod; little to no substantial tissue differentiation occurring in parenchymatous forms; cell wall present, containing alginate compounds and cellulose; plasmodesmata or pores between cells in parenchymatous forms; chloroplasts with girdle lamella; outer chloroplast endoplasmic reticulum membrane with direct membrane connection to the outer nuclear envelope membrane; plastid DNA with ring-type genophore; eyespots present or absent; plastid pigments include chlorophylls a and c1,2, fucoxanthin, and violaxanthin.

<==Phaeophyceae [Cyclindaceae, Fuci, Fucophyceae, Melanophyceae, Melanophycidae, Phaeophycophyta, Phaeophyta]
|  i. s.: Polyides durvillaei Bory de Saint-Vincent 1828 BS-V28
|–Discosporangiales [Discosporangiophycidae] SRR14
|    |–Choristocarpus Zanardini 1860 [Choristocarpaceae] SRR14
|    |    `–C. tenellus (Kützing) Zanardini 1860 [=Ectocarpus tenellus] DPR01
|    `–Discosporangium Falkenberg 1878 [Discosporangiaceae] SRR14
|         `–D. mesarthrocarpum (Meneghini) Hauck 1885 DPR01
`–+–Ishigeales [Ishigeophycidae] SRR14
|    |–Diplura Hollenberg 1969 non Koch 1850 (ICZN) SRR14, N10
|    |    `–D. simplex K98
|    `–+–Ishige Yendo 1907 N10 [Ishigeaceae SRR14]
|       |    |–I. foliacea Okamura in Segawa 1935 SRR14, N10
|       |    `–+–I. okamurae Yendo 1907 SRR14, N10 [=I. okamurai N10]
|       |       `–I. sinicola (Setchell & Gardner) Chihara 1969 SRR14, N10 (see below for synonymy)
|       `–Petroderma Kuckuck 1897 N10 [Petrodermataceae SRR14]
|            `–P. maculiforme SRR14
`–+–Dictyotophycidae SRR14
|    |–Onslowia Searles in Searles & Leister 1980 DPR01 [Onslowiaceae, Onslowiales SRR14]
|    |    |–*O. endophytica Searles in Searles & Leister 1980 DPR01
|    |    `–O. bahamensis Henry 1987 DPR01
|    `–+–Dictyotaceae SRR14
|       `–+–Sphacelariales SRR14
|          `–Syringodermataceae [Syringodermatales] SRR14
|               |–Syringoderma Levring 1940 SRR14
|               |    |–S. abyssicola (Setchell & Gardner) Levring 1940 [=Chlanidophora abyssicola] S57
|               |    `–S. phinneyi KM03
|               `–Microzonia Agardh 1894 SRR14
`–Fucophycidae SRR14

Ishige sinicola (Setchell & Gardner) Chihara 1969 SRR14, N10 [=Polyopes sinicola Setchell & Gardner 1924 N10, Carpopeltis sinicola (Setchell & Gardner) Kylin 1956 N10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[BS-V28] Bory de Saint-Vincent, J. B. 1828. Voyage Autour du Monde, Exécuté par Ordre du Roi, Sur la Corvette de Sa Majesté, La Coquille, pendant les années 1822, 1823, 1824 et 1825. Botanique. Cryptogamie. Arthus Bertrand: Paris.

[DPR01] Draisma, S. G. A., & W. F. Prud’homme van Reine. 2001. Onslowiaceae fam. nov. (Phaeophyceae). Journal of Phycology 37: 647–649.

[K98] Kaehler, S. 1998. The non-coralline epilithic encrusting algae of Hong Kong II: additions and identification. Asian Marine Biology 15: 1–17.

[KM03] Kawai, H., S. Maeba, H. Sasaki, K. Okuda & E. C. Henry. 2003. Schizocladia ischiensis: a new filamentous marine chromophyte belonging to a new class, Schizocladiophyceae. Protist 154: 211–228.

[N10] Norris, J. N. 2010. Marine algae of the northern Gulf of California: Chlorophyta and Phaeophyceae. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 94: 1–276.

[S57] Scagel, R. F. 1957. An annotated list of the marine algae of British Columbia and northern Washington (including keys to genera). National Museum of Canada Bulletin 150: 1–289.

[SRR14] Silberfeld, T., F. Rousseau & B. de Reviers. 2014. An updated classification of brown algae (Ochrophyta, Phaeophyceae). Cryptogamie, Algologie 35 (2): 117–156.

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