Phalacridae

Litochrus major, from Lawrence & Britton (1991).

Belongs within: Cucujoidea.

The Phalacridae are a group of ovate, strongly convex beetles that mostly feed on fungal spores (Lawrence & Britton 1991). Members of the genus Olibrus feed on pollen and visit flower heads of Asteraceae (Steiner 2002).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Broadly ovate, strongly convex, glabrous and shining beetles, lateral portions of prothorax and elytra broadly explanate and deflexed. Head short, broad and deeply inserted into anterior prothoracic emargination; antennae relatively long, eleven-segmented, with large three-segmented club; fore coxae globular to transverse with concealed trochantins, fore coxal cavities externally open, internally closed; mesocoxae narrowly to widely separated, cavities closed laterally; tibiae with conspicuous setal comb at apex; tarsi tetramerous with first three segments lobed and setose below and claws toothed or appendiculate; abdomen with five visible ventrites, one or two connate or all free. Larvae elongate and subcylindrical to flattened, usually narrowed posteriorly, and lightly sclerotised, except for head, protergal plate, apex of segment 8 and urogomphi or entire T9. Head broad and somewhat flattened, with short antennae and usually with median endocarina; mala blunt; hypostomal rods long and diverging; 8th spiracles located dorsally near posterior end of tergum; S9 and segment 10 more or less concealed.

<==Phalacridae [Phalacrinae]
    |--Platyphalacrus lawrencei Gimmel 2013B14
    |--AustroporusB14
    |--Litolibrus Sharp 1888S02
    |--Acylomus Sharp 1888S02
    |--Stilbus Seidlitz 1872 [incl. Eustilbus Sharp 1888, Olistherus Seidlitz 1872]S02
    |--Leptostilbus Casey 1916S02
    |--Litochropus Casey 1893S02
    |--Olibroporus Casey 1890S02
    |    `--O. punctatus Casey 1890S02
    |--‘Micromerus’ Guillebeau 1892 nec Rambur 1842 nec Mulsant & Rey 1858M96, BP02
    |    `--M. amabilis Guill. 1894M96
    |--Phalacropsis Casey 1890S02
    |    `--P. dispar (LeConte 1879)S02
    |--Tinodemus Guillebeau 1894S02
    |    `--T. grouvellei Guillebeau 1894S02
    |--Olibroporus Casey 1890S02
    |    `--O. punctatus Casey 1890S02
    |--Gorginus Guillebeau 1894 [incl. Erythrolitus Casey 1916]S02
    |    `--G. rubens (LeConte 1856)S02
    |--Ochrolitus Sharp 1889S02
    |    `---O. tristriatus Casey 1893S02
    |--Olibrus Erichson 1845S02
    |    |--O. bicolorC01
    |    |--O. flavicornisC01
    |    |--O. millefoliiC01
    |    `--O. victoriensis Blackb. 1891M96
    |--PhalacrinusLB91
    |    |--P. australis Blackb. 1891M96
    |    |--P. comis Blackb. 1895M96
    |    |--P. notabilis Blackb. 1895M96
    |    |--P. obtusus Blackb. 1891M96
    |    `--P. rotundus Blackb. 1891M96
    |--Phalacrus Paykull 1798S02
    |    |--P. bicolor [=Sphaeridium bicolor]L02
    |    |--P. burrundiensis Blackb. 1891M96
    |    |--P. corruscans Payk. 1798M96
    |    |--P. politusS02
    |    |--P. striatipennis Lucas 1846E12
    |    |--P. testaceusR26
    |    `--P. uniformisLB91
    |--ParasemusLB91
    |    |--P. comes Blackb. 1895M96
    |    |--P. discoideus Blackb. 1895M96
    |    |--P. doctus Blackb. 1895M96
    |    |--P. grouvelli Guill. 1894M96
    |    |--P. internatus Blackb. 1895M96
    |    |--P. modestus Blackb. 1895M96
    |    |--P. obsoletus Blackb. 1895M96
    |    `--P. torridus Blackb. 1895M96
    `--Litochrus Erichson 1845S02
         |--L. alpicola Blackb. 1891M96
         |--L. alternans Blackb. 1891M96
         |--L. coloratus Blackb. 1895M96
         |--L. consors Blackb. 1893M96
         |--L. frigidus Blackb. 1891M96
         |--L. koebelei Blackb. 1895M96
         |--L. laeticulus Blackb. 1891M96
         |--L. lateralis Blackb. 1891M96
         |--L. maculatus Blackb. 1891M96
         |--L. major Blackb. 1895M96
         |--L. noteroides Blackb. 1895M96
         |--L. palmerstoni Blackb. 1891M96
         |--L. pulchellus Blackb. 1895M96
         |--L. suturellus Blackb. 1891M96
         |--L. sydneyensis Blackb. 1892M96
         |--L. tinctus Blackb. 1895M96
         `--L. uniformis Blackb. 1891M96

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BP02] Bologna, M. A., & J. D. Pinto. 2002. The Old World genera of Meloidae (Coleoptera): a key and synopsis. Journal of Natural History 36 (17): 2013–2102.

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature’s gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[M96] Masters, G. 1896. Catalogue of the described Coleoptera of Australia. Supplement, part II. Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrophyllidae, Staphylinidae, Pselaphidae, Paussidae, Silphidae, Scaphididae, Histeridae, Phalacridae, Nitidulidae, Trogositidae, Colydiidae, Cucujidae, Cryptophagidae, Lathridiidae, Mycetophagidae, Dermestidae, Byrrhidae, Parnidae, Heteroceridae. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 21 (Suppl.): 695–754.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[S02] Steiner, W. E., Jr. 2002. Phalacridae Leach 1815. In: Arnett, R. H., Jr, M. C. Thomas, P. E. Skelley & J. H. Frank (eds) American Beetles vol. 2. Polyphaga: Scarabaeoidea through Curculionoidea pp. 335–337. CRC Press.

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