Phalangioidea

Pair of Dalquestia formosa, copyright Robby Deans.

Belongs within: Palpatores.
Contains: Neopilionidae, Sclerosomatidae, Phalangiidae, Metopilio.

The Phalangioidea is a diverse clade of long-legged harvestmen, members of which are united by the possession of accessory spiracles in the tibiae of the legs.

<==Phalangioidea
    |--+--NeopilionidaeDL23
    |  `--Hesperopilio Shear 1996GS21, SC06
    |       |--*H. mainae Shear 1996SC06
    |       `--H. magnificus Shultz & Cekalovic 2006SC06
    `--+--+--SclerosomatidaeDL23
       |  `--Protolophus Banks 1893C92 [ProtolophidaeDL23, Protolophinae, Protolophini]
       |       |--*P. tuberculatus Banks 1893C92
       |       |--P. cockerelli Goodnight & Goodnight 1942GG42
       |       |--P. differens Goodnight & Goodnight 1942GG42
       |       |--P. dixiensis Chamberlin 1925GG42
       |       |--P. longipes Schenkel 1951E90
       |       |--P. niger Goodnight & Goodnight 1942 [incl. Parodiellus projectus Goodnight & Goodnight 1942]CH18
       |       |--P. rossi Goodnight & Goodnight 1943GG43
       |       `--P. singularis Banks 1893GG42
       `--+--PhalangiidaeDL23
          `--GlobipedidaeDL23
               |  i. s.: Diguetinus Roewer 1912KC20
               |           `--*D. raptator Roewer 1912C92
               |         Lanthanopilio Cokendolpher & Cokendolpher 1984KM20
               |           `--*L. chickeringi (Roewer 1956) [=Opilio chickeringi]C92
               |--Dalquestia Cokendolpher 1984HT12, C92
               |    |--*D. formosa (Banks 1910)C92 [=Eurybunus formosusC92, Globipes formosusR23]
               |    |--D. conchoCS00
               |    |--D. grasshoffiHT12
               |    |--D. leucopyga Cokendolpher & Sissom 2000CS00
               |    |--D. rothorum Cokendolpher & Stockwell 1986CS00
               |    `--D. rugosa (Schenkel 1951)E90
               `--+--Eurybunus Banks 1893HT12, C92
                  |    |--*E. brunneus Banks 1893C92
                  |    |--E. pallidus Goodnight & Goodnight 1943GG43
                  |    |--E. riversi Goodnight & Goodnight 1943GG43
                  |    `--E. spinosus Banks 1895R23
                  `--+--MetopilioGS21
                     `--Globipes Banks 1893HT12, C92
                          |--*G. spinulatus Banks 1893C92
                          |--G. schultzeiR56
                          `--G. simplex Schenkel 1951E90
Phalangioidea incertae sedis:
  Oligoopilionus Ciobanu 1977C92
    `--*O. aquaticus Ciobanu 1977C92
  Petrunkevitchiana Mello-Leitão 1936C92
    `--*P. oculata (Petrunkevitch 1922) [=Phalangium oculatum]C92
  Kustarachne Scudder 1890DA05 [incl. Protopilio Petrunkevitch 1913KDM20; Kustarachnida, KustarachnidaeK13]
    |--*K. tenuipes Scudder 1890KDM20
    |--K. conica Petrunkevitch 1913S93
    |--K. longipes (Petrunkevitch 1913) [=*Protopilio longipes, Nemastomoides longipes]KDM20
    `--K. extincta (Melander 1903)S93
  Vibone Kauri 1961GS21, HC91
    `--*V. vetusta Kauri 1961HC91

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CH18] Cokendolpher, J. C., & R. G. Holmberg. 2018. Harvestmen of the family Phalangiidae (Arachnida, Opiliones) in the Americas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 67: 1–44.

[CS00] Cokendolpher, J. C., & W. D. Sissom. 2000. Further contributions to the study of Dalquestia (Opiliones, Sclerosomatidae). Entomological News 111 (4): 243–249.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

Derkarabetian, S., A. Lord, K. Angier, E. Frigyik & G. Giribet. 2023. An Opiliones-specific ultraconserved element probe set with a near-complete family-level phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 187: 107887.

[DA05] Dunlop, J. A., & L. I. Anderson. 2005. A fossil harvestman (Arachnida, Opiliones) from the Mississippian of East Kirkton, Scotland. Journal of Arachnology 33: 482–489.

[E90] Edgar, A. L. 1990. Opiliones (Phalangida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 529–581. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[GS21] Giribet, G., K. Sheridan, C. M. Baker, C. J. Painting, G. I. Holwell, P. J. Sirvid & G. Hormiga. 2021. A molecular phylogeny of the circum-Antarctic Opiliones family Neopilionidae. Invertebrate Systematics 35: 827–849.

[GG42] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1942a. The genus Protolophus (Phalangida). American Museum Novitates 1157: 1–7.

[GG43] Goodnight, C. J., & M. L. Goodnight. 1943. New and little known phalangids from the United States. American Midland Naturalist 29 (3): 643–656.

[HT12] Hedin, M., N. Tsurusaki, R. Macías-Ordóñez & J. W. Shultz. 2012. Molecular systematics of sclerosomatid harvestmen (Opiliones, Phalangioidea, Sclerosomatidae): geography is better than taxonomy in predicting phylogeny. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62 (1): 224–236.

[HC91] Hunt, G. S., & J. C. Cokendolpher. 1991. Ballarrinae, a new subfamily of harvestmen from the Southern Hemisphere (Arachnida, Opiliones, Neopilionidae). Records of the Australian Museum 43: 131–169.

[K13] Kury, A. B. 2013. Order Opiliones Sundevall, 1833. Zootaxa 3703: 27–33.

[KC20] Kury, A. B., & J. C. Cokendolpher. 2020. A new family from the New World (Eupnoi: Phalangioidea). In: Kury, A. B., A. C. Mendes, L. Cardoso, M. S. Kury & A. A. Granado. WCO-Lite: Online world catalogue of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Version 1.0—Checklist of all valid nomina in Opiliones with authors and dates of publication up to 2018 pp. 52–54. Published by the author: Rio de Janeiro.

[KDM20] Kury, A. B., J. A. Dunlop & A. M. Mendes. 2020. On the allocation of some Palaeozoic and Tertiary harvestmen. In: Kury, A. B., A. C. Mendes, L. Cardoso, M. S. Kury & A. A. Granado. WCO-Lite: Online world catalogue of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Version 1.0—Checklist of all valid nomina in Opiliones with authors and dates of publication up to 2018 pp. 49–51. Published by the author: Rio de Janeiro.

[KM20] Kury, A. B., A. C. Mendes, L. Cardoso, M. S. Kury & A. A. Granado. 2020. WCO-Lite: Online world catalogue of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Version 1.0—Checklist of all valid nomina in Opiliones with authors and dates of publication up to 2018. Published by the author: Rio de Janeiro.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[R56] Roewer, C. F. 1956. Über Phalangiinae (Phalangiidae, Opiliones Palpatores). (Weitere Weberknechte XIX). Senckenbergiana Biologica 37 (3–4): 247–318.

[S93] Selden, P. A. 1993. Arthropoda (Aglaspidida, Pycnogonida and Chelicerata). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 297–320. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SC06] Shultz, J. W., & T. Cekalovic. 2006. First species of Hesperopilio (Opiliones, Caddoidea) from South America. Journal of Arachnology 34 (1): 46–50.

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