Phalangium

Female common brown harvestman Phalangium opilio, copyright Didier Descouens.

Belongs within: Phalangiidae.

Phalangium is a genus of harvestmen found in Europe and western Asia, with the species P. opilio also found in North America and introduced to Australasia. A number of the species listed below are nomina dubia dating to early circumscriptions of this genus including a much broader range of species; most are probably not correctly placed. Males of Phalangium typically bear an upright horn at the top of the second cheliceral segment.

Characters (from Snegovaya & Staręga 2009): Body coloration yellowish with distinct brown/blackish saddle. Eye mound relatively high (height=length=width), front and back surface nearly of equal width, deeply furrowed, with distinct denticles on eye rings. Cheliceral 1st segment without modifactions, 2nd with dorsal horn, sometimes thin, sometimes strong and very long, sometimes lacking. Pedipalps lacking apophyses (if any on patella then very short), femur with weak armature mainly on dorsal side, sometimes whole pedipalp leg-like elongate and very thin. Legs mostly long, femora with rows of denticles, 1st pair thicker than the others. Penis with shaft thick, narrowing gradually from the broadened base and subapically with distinct ”spoon”, glans in profile triangular.

<==Phalangium Linnaeus 1758SS09 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*P. opilio Linnaeus 1758C92 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. aegyptiacum Savigny 1816 (n. d.)S84
    |--P. armatum Snegovaya 2005 [incl. P. zuvandicum Snegovaya 2005]SCM18
    |--P. bakuense Snegovaya 2006SS09
    |--P. copticum Savigny 1816 (n. d.) [=P. qobticum (l. c.)]S84
    |--P. coronatum Fabricius 1779 (n. d.)R23
    |--P. ghissaricum Gricenko 1976GF11
    |--P. grossipes Müller 1776 (n. d.)R23
    |--P. jakesi (Šilhavý 1966)SS09 [=*Bactrophalangium jakesiC92]
    |--P. kitabense Chemeris 2012 [=P. kitabensis]KM20
    |--P. kopetdaghense Chemeris & Snegovaya 2010 [=P. kopetdaghensis]KM20
    |--P. licenti Schenkel 1953 (n. d.)SS09
    |--P. ligusticum (Roewer 1923)SS09
    |--P. minutum Meade 1861 (n. d.)R23
    |--P. pallidum Müller 1776 (n. d.)R23
    |--P. punctipes (Koch 1879)KM20 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. pygnogonum Müller 1776 (n. d.)R23
    |--P. riedeli Staręga 1973K14
    |--P. savignyi Audouin 1826SS09 [=Cerastoma savignyiR23]
    |--P. staregai Snegovaya 2005SS09
    |--P. succineum Presl 1822 (n. d.)D07
    |--P. targionii (Canestrini 1871)SS09 [=Opilio targioniiR23]
    |--P. venustum Snegovaya 2008SS09
    `--P. wahrmanni Roewer 1953SS09
Nomina nuda: Phalangium cruditum Latreille in Roewer 1923R23
             Phalangium dorsale Kollar in Roewer 1923R23
             Phalangium morbillosum Kollar in Roewer 1923R23
             Phalangium muricatum Kollar in Roewer 1923R23
             Phalangium truncatum Kollar in Roewer 1923R23

Phalangium Linnaeus 1758SS09 [incl. Bactrophalangium Šilhavý 1966SS09, Cerastoma Koch 1839 nec Latreille 1802 nec Conrad 1837C92]

*Phalangium opilio Linnaeus 1758C92 [incl. Cerastoma aduncum Koch 1870D03, Opilio angulatichelis Roewer 1952S03, C. brevicorne Koch 1839D04, Phalangium brevicorneD04, P. calabrianum Roewer 1956D04, P. canescens Meade 1855D04, Cerastoma capricorne Koch 1869D04, P. cornutum Linné 1767D04, *C. cornutumC92, Opilio cornutusD04, C. curvicorne Koch 1839D04, C. dentatum Koch 1872D04, Phalangium longicorne Simon 1882D04, P. longipalpus Weed 1890CH18, Dentizacheus minor Rambla 1966D04, Opilio molluscus Koch 1867D04, Cerastoma molluscumD04, Phalangium molluscumD04, Eudasylobus polonicus Roewer 1956D04, Opilio praefectus Koch 1867D04, Cerastoma praefectumD04, C. tirolense Koch 1869D04, Phalangium tirolenseD04, Eudasylobus unicolor Roewer 1911M78]

Phalangium punctipes (Koch 1879)KM20 [=Opilio punctipesKM20; incl. Egaenus ephippiatus Roewer 1911S03, Phalangium pareissii Roewer 1911KM02]

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CH18] Cokendolpher, J. C., & R. G. Holmberg. 2018. Harvestmen of the family Phalangiidae (Arachnida, Opiliones) in the Americas. Special Publications, Museum of Texas Tech University 67: 1–44.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[D04] Delfosse, E. 2004. Catalogue préliminaire des Opilions de France métropolitaine (Arachnida Opiliones). Bulletin de Phyllie 20: 34–58.

[D07] Dunlop, J. A. 2007. Paleontology. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 247–265. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[GF11] Gabryś, G., M. Felska, A. Kłosińska, W. Staręga & J. Mąkol. 2011. Harvestmen (Opiliones) as hosts of Parasitengona (Acari: Actinotrichida, Prostigmata) larvae. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 349–351.

[K14] Kurt, K. 2014. Redescription of Phalangium riedeli Staręga, 1973 (Opiliones: Phalangiidae) from Turkey with the first description of the female. Entomological News 124 (3): 186–192.

[KM20] Kury, A. B., A. C. Mendes, L. Cardoso, M. S. Kury & A. A. Granado. 2020. WCO-Lite: Online world catalogue of harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones). Version 1.0—Checklist of all valid nomina in Opiliones with authors and dates of publication up to 2018. Published by the author: Rio de Janeiro.

[M78] Martens, J. 1978. Spinnentiere, Arachnida: Weberknechte, Opiliones. Gustav Fischer Verlag: Jena.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[SCM18] Snegovaya, N. Y., J. C. Cokendolpher & F. Mozaffarian. 2018. The Opiliones of Iran with a description of a new genus and two new species. Journal of Arachnology 46 (1): 69–80.

[SS09] Snegovaya, N. Y., & W. Staręga. 2009. Taurolaena, a new genus of Phalangiidae (Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología 17: 37–44.

[S84] Staręga, W. 1984. Revision der Phalangiidae (Opiliones), III. Die afrikanischen Gattungen der Phalangiinae, nebst Katalog aller afrikanischen Arten der Familie. Annales Zoologici 38 (1): 1–79.

[S03] Staręga, W. 2003. On the identity and synonymies of some Asiatic Opilioninae (Opiliones: Phalangiidae). Acta Arachnologica 52 (2): 91–102.

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