Phasmatinae

 Titan stick insect Acrophylla titan, from Queensland Museum.

Belongs within: Phasmatodea.

The Phasmatinae are a mostly Australasian group of stick insects, with some species found in Asia. They are robust, usually winged, and have moderately long antennae (Brock & Hasenpusch 2009). Some phasmatines are remarkably large: the titan stick insect Acrophylla titan reaches a length of 250 mm (Rentz 1996). The goliath stick insect Eurycnema goliath is less elongate but more heavily built.

<==Phasmatinae [Clitumninae]
    |--Acanthomima Kirby 1904 [incl. Ectus Redtenbacher 1908]BH07
    |    `--A. rhipheus (Westwood 1859) [incl. Ectus solitarius Redtenbacher 1908]BH07
    |--Cigarrophasma Brock & Hasenpusch 2001BH07
    |    `--C. tessellatum Brock & Hasenpusch 2001BH07
    |--Hermarchus Stål 1875BH07
    |    `--H. insignis (Kaup 1871) [incl. H. polynesicus Redtenbacher 1908]BH07
    |--Paractenomorpha Hennemann & Conle 2004BH07
    |    `--P. baehri Hennemann & Conle 2004BH07
    |--Vasilissa Kirby 1896BH07
    |    `--V. walkeri Kirby 1896BH07
    |--Ctenomorpha Gray 1833BH07
    |    |--C. gargantua Hasenpusch & Brock 1006BH07
    |    `--C. marginipennis Gray 1833BH07 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Eurycnema Serville 1838BH07
    |    |--E. goliath (Gray 1834) (see below for synonymy)BH07
    |    `--E. osiris (Gray 1834) (see below for synonymy)BH07
    |--Onchestus Stål 1877BH07
    |    |--O. gorgus (Westwood 1859)BH07
    |    `--O. rentzi Brock & Hasenpusch 2006BH07
    |--Ramulus Saussure 1862 (see below for synonymy)BH07
    |    |--‘Clitumnus’ extradentatusT86
    |    `--R. stilpnoides (Kirby 1896)BH07
    |--PhasmaWBM03
    |    |--P. filiformisG20
    |    |--P. gigasWBM03
    |    `--P. rossia [=Mantis rossia]L02
    |--Paronchestus Redtenbacher 1908BH07
    |    |--P. charon Redtenbacher 1908BH07
    |    |--P. cornutus (Tepper 1905) [=Acrophylla cornuta]BH07
    |    `--P. pasimachus (Westwood 1859) [=Onchestus pasimachus]BH07
    |--Anchiale Stål 1875 [incl. Ctenomorphodes Karny 1923]BH07
    |    |--A. austrotessulata Brock & Hasenpusch 2007 (see below for synonymy)BH07
    |    |--A. briareus (Gray 1834) (see below for synonymy)BH07
    |    |--A. maculata (Olivier 1792) (see below for synonymy)BH07
    |    |--A. spinicollis (Gray 1833) [incl. Diura japetus Gray 1833]BH07
    |    `--A. tessulata (Goeze 1778) [=Mantis tessulata]BH07
    |--Arphax Stål 1875 [incl. Austroclonistria Redtenbacher 1908]BH07
    |    |--A. australis (Charpentier 1845)BH07
    |    |--A. brunneus (Gray 1833)BH07
    |    |--A. dolomedes (Westwood 1859) [incl. Austroclonistria serrulata (Redtenbacher 1908)]BH07
    |    |--A. michaelseni Werner 1912BH07
    |    `--A. signatus Brunner 1907BH07
    `--Acrophylla Gray 1835 [incl. Vetilia Stål 1875]BH07
         |--A. caprella (Westwood 1859) [=Ctenomorpha caprella]BH07
         |--A. enceladus (Gray 1835) [=Vetilia enceladus; incl. V. eurymedon Stål 1875]BH07
         |--A. nubilosa Tepper 1905 [incl. A. aliena Redtenbacher 1908, A. paula (Tepper 1905)]BH07
         |--A. thoon (Stål 1875) [=Vetilia thoon]BH07
         |--A. titan (Macleay 1826)BH07
         `--A. wuelfingi (Redtenbacher 1908) [incl. Vetilia ligula Redtenbacher 108]BH07

Anchiale austrotessulata Brock & Hasenpusch 2007 [=Ctenomorphodes tessulatus (Gray 1835) non Mantis tessulata Goeze 1778]BH07

Anchiale briareus (Gray 1834) [=Ctenomorphodes briareus; incl. Ctenomorpha albopunctatum (Kirby 1896), Ctenomorpha macleayi Gray 1835, Ctenomorpha nigrovaria Stål 1875]BH07

Anchiale maculata (Olivier 1792) [incl. A. confusa Sharp 1898, Mantis cylindrica Gmelin 1788, Phasma naevium Lichtenstein 1802, P. necydaloides Stoll 1813, A. stolli Sharp 1898]BH07

Ctenomorpha marginipennis Gray 1833BH07 [incl. Diura chromus Gray 1833BH07, C. chronusR96, Paractenomorpha macrotegmus (Tepper 1887)BH07, Acrophylla oxyacantha Redtenbacher 1908BH07, A. phyllocerca Redtenbacher 1908BH07, A. scutigera Redtenbacher 1908BH07, A. tasmaniensis Lea 1902BH07]

Eurycnema goliath (Gray 1834) [incl. Ctenomorpha acheron Gray 1834, E. magnifica Kirby 1904, Clemacantha regale Rainbow 1897, E. viridissima Kirby 1904]BH07

Eurycnema osiris (Gray 1834) [incl. E. cercata Redtenbacher 1902, Acrophylla salmacis Westwood 1859, E. stenocerca Redtenbacher 1908]BH07

Ramulus Saussure 1862 [incl. Clitumnus Stål 1875, Dagys Günther 1935, Dubreulia Brunner 1907, Paraclitumnus Brunner 1893; Ramulini]BH07

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[BH07] Brock, P. D., & J. W. Hasenpusch. 2007. Studies on the Australian stick insects (Phasmida), including a checklist of species and bibliography. Zootaxa 1570: 1–81.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

[T86] Tsurusaki, N. 1986. Parthenogenesis and geographic variation of sex ratio in two species of Leiobunum (Arachnida, Opiliones). Zoological Science 3: 517–532.

[WBM03] Whiting, M. F., S. Bradler & T. Maxwell. 2003. Loss and recovery of wings in stick insects. Nature 421: 264–267.

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