Phlaeothripidae

 Eupathithrips dentipes, from Bagnall (1908).

Belongs within: Thripida.
Contains: Macrophthalmothrips, Glyptothripini, Hyidiothripini, Plectrothripini, Apelaunothripini, Sophiothrips, Williamsiella, Urothripini, Idolothripinae, Docessissophothripini, Stictothripina, Haplothripini, Hoplothripini, Psalidothrips, Mesothrips, Acanthothrips, Hoplandrothrips, Malacothrips.

The Phlaeothripidae are a diverse lineage of thrips characterised by the modification of the last abdominal segment into a tube. They have been divided between two subfamilies, the Idolothripinae and Phlaeothripinae, primarily on the basis of the width of the maxillary stylets (broader in Idolothripinae than Phlaeothripinae). However, molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the ‘Phlaeothripinae’ are paraphyletic relative to the Idolothripinae (Buckman et al. 2013). The ‘Phlaeothripinae’ were divided between numerous tribes by Priesner (1960) but many of the taxa he recognised are probably not monophyletic, being primarily distinguished by the absence of specialised features found in other tribes. Subsequent authors (e.g. Mound & Marullo 1996) have suggested the existence of three major ‘phlaeothripine’ lineages: the primarily hyphal-feeding ‘Phlaeothrips lineage’, the flower-feeding ‘Haplothrips lineage’, and the leaf-feeding ‘Liothrips‘ lineage. Though molecular analysis supports monophyly of the Haplothrips and Liothrips lineages, it does not support the Phlaeothrips lineage (Buckman et al. 2013). As the Idolothripinae are also fungal feeders, these habits are probably plesiomorphic for the Phlaeothripidae as a whole.

The Williamsiellina are a group of thrips primarily associated with mosses. They usually have the maxillary stylets widely separated when retracted (except in two species of Lissothrips); the stylets are retracted deeply in Lissothrips, but are very low in Williamsiella. The maxillary stylets probably retract about halfway into the head in Pueblothrips minuta, which is only known from the type series in which the stylets are probably not in the resting position (Mound & Marullo 1996). The Mesothripina are characterised by large eyes and a basally constricted head, with wings narrowly constricted towards the middle and parallel-sided from the middle to the apex (Priesner 1960).

Characters (from Mound & Marullo 1996): Abdominal tergite X forming an enclosed tube in both sexes, although excavate ventrally at the base in males and variously swollen in some species; sternite VIII similar in structure to sternite VII, female with an eversible chute-like ovipositor; forewings, when present, without longitudinal veins or veinal setae, surface without microtrichia, marginal cilia not arising from sockets.

<==Phlaeothripidae [Acanthothripini, Phlaeothripinae, Phlaeothripini, Phloeothripomorpha, Tubulifera]
    |--WilliamsiellinaP60
    |    |--SophiothripsBMW13
    |    |--WilliamsiellaMM96
    |    `--Pueblothrips Stannard 1950P60, MM96
    |         `--*P. minuta Stannard 1950MM96
    `--+--UrothripiniBMW13
       `--+--IdolothripinaeBMW13
          `--+--+--Adrothrips Moulton 1942BMW13, M70
             |  |    |--*A. aureus Moulton 1942M70
             |  |    |--A. akanthus Mound 1970M70
             |  |    |--A. cotteri Mound 1970M70
             |  |    |--A. intermedius (Bianchi 1945) [=Scopaeothrips intermedius]M70
             |  |    `--A. systenus Mound 1970M70
             |  `--DocessissophothripiniBMW13
             `--+--StictothripinaBMW13
                `--+--+--HaplothripiniBMW13
                   |  `--+--Cartomothrips Stannard 1962BMW13, MM96
                   |     |    |--*C. browni Stannard 1962MM96
                   |     |    `--C. manukaeAY04
                   |     `--ThorybothripinaMM96
                   |          |--Thorybothrips Priesner 1924MM96
                   |          |    |--T. unicolor [=Cryptothrips unicolor; incl. *T. graminis Priesner 1924]MM96
                   |          |    `--T. yuccaeMM96
                   |          `--Treherniella Watson 1924BMW13, MM96
                   |               |--T. amplipennis (Morgan 1913) (see below for synonymy)MM96
                   |               `--T. atrata De Santis 1963MM96
                   `--+--HoplothripiniBMW13
                      `--+--MesothripinaA78
                         |    |--EuoplothripsP60
                         |    |    |--E. bagnalliA78
                         |    |    |--E. buxtoniA78
                         |    |    |--E. crassipesA78
                         |    |    |--E. incognitusA78
                         |    |    `--E. uncinatusA78
                         |    |--GlenothripsP60
                         |    |--LogadothripsP60
                         |    |--ParamesothripsP60
                         |    |--PhylladothripsP60
                         |    |--PsalidothripsP60
                         |    |--MesothripsP60
                         |    |--Mesandrothrips inquilinusA78
                         |    |--Moultonoides geijeraeA78
                         |    `--SacothripsBMW13
                         |         |--S. bicolorA78
                         |         |--S. catheterBMW13
                         |         |--S. corycidisA78
                         |         |--S. galbusA78
                         |         |--S. ingensA78
                         |         `--S. milvusA78
                         `--PhlaeothripinaP60
                              |--AcanthothripsP60
                              |--BamboosiellaP60
                              |--CryptaplothripsP60
                              |--GluphothripsP60
                              |--GynoplothripsP60
                              |--HoplandrothripsBMW13
                              |--MalacothripsP60
                              |--OdontinothripsP60
                              |--OrmothripsP60
                              |--PhlaeobiothripsP60
                              |--PselaphothripsP60
                              |--Phlaeothrips Haliday 1836GM79
                              |    |--*P. coriaceusMM96
                              |    `--P. okamatoi (Karny 1913) [=Cryptothrips okamatoi]MP83
                              |--Sedulothrips Bagnall 1915P60, MM96
                              |    |--S. vigilans (Hood 1913) (see below for synonymy)MM96
                              |    `--S. tristis Hood 1933MM96
                              |--EcacanthothripsP60
                              |    |--E. io Girault 1930G30
                              |    |--E. sanguineusA61 (see below for synonymy)
                              |    `--E. tibialisMDT13
                              |--Poecilothrips Uzel 1895P60, MM96
                              |    |--*P. albopictus Uzel 1895 [incl. P. harrisoni, P. lupini, P. ornatus]MM96
                              |    |--P. dens (Moulton 1907) [=Trichothrips dens]MM96
                              |    `--P. nubilusMM96
                              |--Pristothrips Hood 1925P60, MM96 [incl. Celetothrips Morgan 1929MM96]
                              |    |--*P. aaptus Hood 1925MM96
                              |    |--P. albipunctatus Hood 1925 (see below for synonymy)MM96
                              |    `--P. pollostus Mound & Marullo 1996MM96
                              `--Eupathithrips Bagnall 1908P60, MM96 (see below for synonymy)
                                   |--*E. dentipes Bagnall 1908MM96
                                   |--E. affinis Bagnall 1915 [incl. E. bagnalli Morgan 1929]MM96
                                   |--E. atripes Hood 1950MM96
                                   |--E. meizon Hood 1955MM96
                                   |--E. panscopus Hood 1938MM96
                                   `--E. silvestrii (Buffa 1908) (see below for synonymy)MM96
Phlaeothripidae incertae sedis:
  Hannibalia Girault 1928P60, G28
    `--*H. priscus Girault 1928G28
  Rohrthrips libanicusPL12
  Jersonithrips Retana-Salazar & Nishida 2007R-SN07
    `--*J. galligenus Retana-Salazar & Nishida 2007R-SN07
  IotatubothripsM04b
    |--I. crozieriM04b
    `--I. kranzaeM04b
  Phallothrips houstoniM04b
  Acrosothrips Stannard 1963MM96
    `--*A. asymmetricus (Watson 1937) [=Trichothrips asymmetricus]MM96
  Senarioliothrips Johansen 1981MM96
    `--*S. infrequentis Johansen 1981MM96
  Torvothrips Johansen 1979MM96
    |--*T. atrox Johansen 1979MM96
    |--T. kosztarebi Johansen 1980MM96
    |--T. martinezi Johansen 1980MM96
    |--T. penetrans Johansen 1980MM96
    `--T. tremendus (Johansen 1978) [=Rhynchothrips tremendus]MM96
  Pseudophilothrips Johansen 1979MM96
    |--*P. moundi Johansen 1979MM96
    |--P. amabilis Johansen 1981MM96
    |--P. fugitivus (Johansen 1983) [=Phrasterothrips fugitivus]MM96
    `--P. ichini (Hood 1949) [=Liothrips ichini]MM96
  Pistillothrips Johansen 1982MM96
    `--*P. guadalupae Johansen 1982MM96
  Chortothrips Hood 1957MM96
    `--*C. valens (Hood 1950) [=Eurythrips valens]MM96
  Chthonothrips Hood 1957MM96
    `--*C. nigrocinctus Hood 1957MM96
  Blepharidothrips Hood 1952MM96
    `--*B. sphaerops Hood 1952MM96
  Hansonthrips Mound & Marullo 1996MM96
    |--*H. drymus Mound & Marullo 1996MM96
    `--H. selvae Mound & Marullo 1996MM96
  Trypanothrips Hood 1957MM96
    `--*T. coxalis Hood 1957MM96
  Diphyothrips Stannard 1963MM96
    `--*D. morainensis Stannard 1963MM96
  Godoythrips Mound & Marullo 1996MM96
    `--*G. asketus Mound & Marullo 1996MM96
  Amynothrips O’Neill 1968MM96
    `--*A. andersoni O’Neill 1968MM96
  Xeroleptothrips Johansen 1982MM96
    `--*X. tehuacanensis Johansen 1982MM96
  Gomphiothrips Moulton 1933MM96
    |--*G. tibouchinae Moulton 1933MM96
    `--G. mercedes Mound & Marullo 1996MM96
  Pleurothrips Hood 1957MM96
    `--*P. collaris (Hood 1925) [=Eurythrips collaris]MM96
  Domatiathrips Mound 1993MM96
    `--*D. cunninghamii Mound 1993MM96
  AkainothripsMP83
    |--A. asketusM13
    |--A. dubitalisM13
    |--A. exourusM13
    `--A. ireneaeM13
  Thilakothrips [Thilakothripina]P60
    `--T. babuliA78
  MacrophthalmothripsMDT13
  Aleurodothrips Franklin 1909MM96 [AleurodothripinaP60]
    |--*A. fasciapennis (Franklin 1908) [=Cryptothrips fasciapennis]MM96
    `--A. fasciiventris Girault 1927G27
  GlyptothripiniMM96
  HyidiothripiniMDT13
  PlectrothripiniMDT13
  ApelaunothripiniMDT13
  Klambothrips Mound & Morris 2007M08
    |--*K. myopori Mound & Morris 2007M08
    |--K. annulosus [=Teuchothrips annulosus]M08
    |--K. oleariaeM08
    `--K. walsinghami [=Teuchothrips walsinghami]M08
  Callococcithrips Mound & Wells 2007M08
    |--*C. fuscipennis (Moulton 1968) [=Rhynchothrips fuscipennis]M08
    `--C. atratus [=Liothrips atratus]M08
  Majerthrips Mound & Minaei 2006T13
    `--M. barrowi Mound & Minaei 2006T13
  Senithrips Mound & Minaei 2006T13
    `--S. psomus Mound & Minaei 2006T13
  Brakothrips stenosM13
  StomothripsMDT13
    |--S. cycasiMDT13
    `--S. mouldeniMDT13
  CorroboreethripsMDT13
  Ostlingothrips coriniM13
  DeplorothripsMDT13
  Azaleothrips lepidusMDT13
  Bocathrips okajimaiMDT13, TM13
  SolomonthripsMDT13
    |--S. australiensisMDT13
    `--S. brooksiMDT13
  ApostlethripsMDT13
    |--A. apostusMDT13
    `--A. pygusMDT13
  ZemiathripsMDT13
    |--Z. anatolisMDT13
    |--Z. bisetaMDT13
    |--Z. greensladeaeMDT13
    |--Z. trisetaMDT13
    `--Z. uptoniMDT13
  Yarnkothrips kolourusMDT13
  Hapsidothrips Mamet 1967M04a
    `--H. curtispinisM04a
  Maurithrips Mamet 1967M04a
    `--M. spinulosusM04a

Ecacanthothrips sanguineusA61 [incl. E. bryanti Bagnall 1915A61, GM79, E. coxalisA61, E. erythrinusA61, E. flavipesA61, E. fletcheriA61, E. priesneriA61, E. ramakrishnaiA61, E. steinskyiA61]

Eupathithrips Bagnall 1908P60, MM96 [incl. Heterothrips Buffa 1908 non Hood 1908MM96, Polyommatothrips Buffa 1909MM96]

Eupathithrips silvestrii (Buffa 1908) [=*Heterothrips silvestrii, *Polyommatothrips silvestrii; incl. Eupathithrips spectator Hood 1934]MM96

Pristothrips albipunctatus Hood 1925 [incl. *Celetothrips breviceps Morgan 1929, P. peruviensis Hood 1938]MM96

Sedulothrips vigilans (Hood 1913) [=Polyommatothrips vigilans; incl. S. brevispinosus Moulton 1933, S. hubbelli Watson 1924, *S. insolens Bagnall 1915, Macrophthalmothrips papantlensis Johansen 1974, S. quichua Hood 1938]MM96

Treherniella amplipennis (Morgan 1913) [=Trichothrips amplipennis; incl. Haplothrips orlando Watson & Osborn 1919, *Treherniella orlando]MM96

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A61] Ananthakrishnan, T. N. 1961. Allometry and speciation in Ecacanthothrips Bagnall. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74: 275–280.

[A78] Ananthakrishnan, T. N. 1978. Thrips galls and gall thrips. Zoological Survey of India, Technical Monograph 1: 1–69, 26 pls.

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects ‘Down Under’—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216–234.

[BMW13] Buckman, R. S., L. A. Mound & M. F. Whiting. 2013. Phylogeny of thrips (Insecta: Thysanoptera) based on five molecular loci. Systematic Entomology 38: 123–133.

[G27] Girault, A. A. 1927. A discourse on wild animals. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 216–217).

[G28] Girault, A. A. 1928. Notice of a curious professor and of native wasps and wood lice. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 229–232).

[G30] Girault, A. A. 1930. New pests from Australia. VIII. Privately published (reprinted: Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 273–277).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[M70] Mound, L. A. 1970. Convoluted maxillary stylets and the systematics of some phlaeothripine Thysanoptera from Casuarina trees in Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 18: 439–463.

[M04a] Mound, L. A. 2004a. Australian long-tailed gall thrips (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripinae, Leeuweniini), with comments on related Old World taxa. Australian Journal of Entomology 43: 28–37.

[M04b] Mound, L. A. 2004b. Australian Thysanoptera—biological diversity and a diversity of studies. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 248–257.

[M08] Mound, L. A. 2008. Identification and host associations of some Thysanoptera Phlaeothripinae described from Australia pre-1930. Zootaxa 1714: 41–60.

[M13] Mound, L. A. 2013. Thysanoptera (Insecta) of Barrow Island, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 287–290.

[MDT13] Mound, L. A., L.-H. Dang & D. J. Tree. 2013. Genera of fungivorous Phlaeothripinae (Thysanoptera) from dead branches and leaf-litter in Australia. Zootaxa 3681 (3): 201–224.

[MM96] Mound, L. A., & R. Marullo. 1996. The thrips of Central and South America: an introduction (Insecta: Thysanoptera). Memoirs on Entomology, International 6: 1–487.

[MP83] Mound, L. A., & J. M. Palmer. 1983. The generic and tribal classification of spore-feeding Thysanoptera (Phlaeothripidae: Idolothripinae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (1): 1–174.

[PL12] Peñalver, E., C. C. Labandeira, E. Barrón, X. Delclòs, P. Nel, A. Nel, P. Tafforeau & C. Soriano. 2012. Thrips pollination of Mesozoic gymnosperms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 109 (22): 8623–8628.

[P60] Priesner, H. 1960. Das System der Tubulifera (Thysanoptera). Anzeiger der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse 13: 283–296.

[R-SN07] Retana-Salazar, A. P., & K. Nishida. 2007. First gall-inducing thrips on Elaphoglossum ferns: a new genus and species of thrips, Jersonithrips galligenus from Costa Rica (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripidae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 87 (2): 143–148.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

[TM13] Tree, D. J., & L. A. Mound. 2013. Leichhardt’s vanishing thrips: a remarkable new genus and species of Insecta, Thysanoptera, Phlaeothripinae. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum—Nature 58: 375–379.

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