Feeding Phlebotomus papatasi, photographed by Frank Collins.

Belongs within: Psychodoidea.

The Phlebotominae, sand flies, are a group of small flies with soil-dwelling larvae and blood-sucking adults. They are characterised by a four-branched Rs vein in the wing, and mouthparts much longer than the height of the head (Quate & Vockeroth 1981).

<==Phlebotominae GE05
    |–Phlebotomites GE05
    |–Libanophlebotomus lutfallahi GE05
    |–Chinius WI-B09
    |–Sergentomyia WI-B09
    |–Brumptomyia mesai WI-B09
    |–Warileya [incl. Hertigia] WI-B09
    |–Edentomyia WI-B09
    |–Lutzomyia QV81
    |    |–L. cruciata WI-B09
    |    |–L. longipalpis WT11
    |    `–L. vexator QV81
    `–Phlebotomus WT11
         |–P. argentipes A71
         |–P. ariasi A71
         |–P. capensis de Meillon 1955 S61
         |–P. duboscqui WT11
         |–P. longipalpis A71
         |–P. major A71
         |–P. orientalis A71
         |–P. papatasi NJ91
         |–P. parfiliewi A71
         |–P. perniciosus A71
         |–P. sergenti A71
         `–P. verrucarum A71

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[NJ91] Nuttall, P. A., & L. D. Jones. 1991. Non-viraemic tick-borne virus transmission: mechanism and significance. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 3–6. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[QV81] Quate, L. W., & J. R. Vockeroth. 1981. Psychodidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–300. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[S61] Stuckenberg, R. R. 1961. Diptera (Nematocera): Thaumaleidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 409–412. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[WI-B09] Wagner, R., & S. Ibáñez-Bernal. 2009. Psychodidae (sand flies, and moth flis or owl flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera, vol. 1 pp. 319–335. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

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