Harbour seal Phoca vitulina, copyright Andreas Trepte.

Belongs within: Phocidae.

The Phocinae are the northern seals, characterised by the presence of claws on the fore and hind flippers.

    |--Erignathus [Erignathini]FS15
    |    `--E. barbatusR76
    `--+--Cystophora [Cystophorini]FS15
       |    `--C. cristataFS15
            |    |--*Histriophoca fasciata (Zimmermann 1783)H48, FS15, H48 [=Phoca fasciataH48]
            |    `--Pagophilus groenlandicusAG06
            `--+--+--Halichoerus grypusFS15 [=Phoca grypaAG06]
               |  `--PusaFS15 [incl. Pontophoca Alekseev 1924G76]
               |       |--P. sibiricaFS15 [=Phoca sibiricaAG06]
               |       `--+--P. hispidaFS15 [=Phoca hispidaAG06]
               |          |    |--P. h. hispidaG88
               |          |    |--P. h. ladogensis [=Phoca (Pusa) hispida ladogensis]G88
               |          |    `--P. h. saimensis [=Phoca (Pusa) hispida saimensis]G88
               |          `--+--‘Phoca’ sarmatica [=Pontophoca sarmatica]G76
               |             `--+--P. caspica Gmelin 1788FS15, M01 [=Phoca vitulina var. caspicaM01]
               |                `--P. pontica (see below for synonymy)G76
               `--Phoca Linnaeus 1758FS15, L58 [Phocina]
                    |--P. bessarabicaR76
                    |--P. foetidaM01
                    |--P. groenlandicaR76
                    |--P. holitschensisG76
                    |--P. largha Pallsa 1811FS15, S56 (see below for synonymy)
                    |--P. novorossicaG76
                    |--P. rosmarus Linnaeus 1758L58
                    |--P. rugosidensR76
                    |--P. ursina Linnaeus 1758L58
                    |--P. vindobonensisR76
                    |--P. vitulina Linnaeus 1758L58
                    |    |--P. v. vitulinaS69
                    |    |--P. v. concolorMSG86
                    |    |--P. v. mellonaeG88
                    |    |--P. v. richardiiS69
                    |    `--P. v. stejnegeriI92
                    `--P. vitulinoidesR76
Phocinae incertae sedis:
  Leptophoca True 1906R76, SM93
    |--L. lenis True 1906BDR85
    `--L. proxima [=Prophoca proxima]R76
  Platyphoca vulgarisR76
  Gryphoca similisR76
  Phocanella Van Beneden 1876R76, SM93
    |--P. minorR76
    `--P. pumilaR76
  Prophoca rousseauiR76
  Miophoca vetusta Zapfe 1937R76, G76
Inorganic: Phoca vitulina protominilorientalis Okamura 1987O87

Phoca largha Pallsa 1811FS15, S56 [=P. vitulina larghaS56; incl. P. uochotensis (l. c. for ochotensis) var. kurilensis Inukai 1942S56]

Pusa pontica [=Monachus ponticus, Phoca (Pusa) pontica; incl. *Pontophoca simionescui Alekseev 1924]G76

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AG06] Arnason, U., A. Gullberg, A. Janke, M. Kullberg, N. Lehman, E. A. Petrov & R. Väinölä. 2006. Pinniped phylogeny and a new hypothesis for their origin and dispersal. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41 (2): 345–354.

[BDR85] Barnes, L. G., D. P. Domning & C. E. Ray. 1985. Status of studies on fossil marine mammals. Marine Mammal Science 1 (1): 15–53.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[G88] Gray, J. 1988. Evolution of the freshwater ecosystem: the fossil record. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62: 1–214.

[G76] Grigorescu, D. 1976. Paratethyan seals. Systematic Zoology 25 (4): 407–419.

[H48] Hershkovitz, P. 1948. The technical name of the Virginia deer with a list of the South American forms. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 61: 41–45.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MSG86] McLaren, S. B., D. A. Schlitter & H. H. Genoways. 1986. Catalog of the Recent marine mammals in the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. Annals of Carnegie Museum 55 (11): 237–296.

[M01] Méhely, L. 1901. Emlősök [Säugethiere]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 1–19. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[R76] Ray, C. E. 1976. Geography of phocid evolution. Systematic Zoology 25 (4): 391–406.

[S69] Sarich, V. M. 1969. Pinniped origins and the rate of evolution of carnivore albumins. Systematic Zoology 18 (3): 286–295.

[S56] Scheffer, V. B. 1956. Little-known reference to name of a harbor seal. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (11): 352.

[SM93] Stucky, R. K., & M. C. McKenna. 1993. Mammalia. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 739–771. Chapman & Hall: London.

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