Pholcidae

Smeringopus pallidus, copyright G. McCormack.

Belongs within: Basalhaplogynae.
Contains: Modisiminae, Pholcinae.

The Pholcidae, daddy-long-legs spiders, are a cosmopolitan family of spiders with usually very long legs, most of which build sheetwebs or cobwebs in secluded locations.

Characters (from Huber 2011): Clypeus high; six or eight eyes present, arranged in two triads separate from anterior median eyes (if latter present); leg tibiae with three trichobothria; leg tarsi pseudosegmented, fourth tarsi with comb-hairs; male chelicerae usually modified; male pedipalp usually heavily modified, including proximal segments, with process of palpal tarsus (procursus) usually present; female external genitalia often sculptured, more or less sclerotised to produce an epigynum; egg-sac carried in chelicerae by female.

<==Pholcidae [Pholceae, Smeringopodeae]
    |--Ninetinae [Ninetidinae]HF08
    |    |  i. s.: Mystes Bristowe 1938H11
    |    |         Serratochorus Wunderlich 1988H11
    |    |         Enetea Huber 2000H11
    |    |         0--Galapa Huber 2000H11
    |    |         `--Guaranita Huber 2000H11
    |    |--+--Ninetis Simon 1890HF08, H11
    |    |  |    |--N. subtilissimaH11
    |    |  |    `--N. toliara Huber & El Hennawy 2007HF08
    |    |  |--Nerudia Huber 2000H11
    |    |  `--Kambiwa Huber 2000H11
    |    |--+--Aucana Huber 2000HF08, H11
    |    |  |    `--A. kaala Huber 2000HF08
    |    |  |--Nita Huber & El Hennawy 2007HF08, H11
    |    |  |    `--N. elsaff Huber & El Hennawy 2007HF08
    |    |  `--Chisosa Huber 2000H11
    |    `--+--+--Ibotyporanga Mello-Leitão 1944H11
    |       |  |    `--I. naideae Mello-Leitão 1944HF08
    |       |  `--Gertschiola Brignoli 1981H11
    |       `--+--Pholcophora Banks 1896HF08, H11
    |          |    `--P. americana Banks 1896HF08
    |          |--Tolteca Huber 2000H11
    |          `--Papiamenta Huber 2000H11
    `--+--+--Arteminae [Artemeae]H11
       |  |    |--Holocneminus Berland 1942HF08, H11
       |  |    |    `--H. piritarsis Berland 1942HF08
       |  |    |--Artema Walckenaer 1837H11
       |  |    |    |--A. atlanta Walckenaer 1837HF08
       |  |    |    `--A. sisyphoides (Doleschall 1857) [=Pholcus sisyphoides; incl. A. convexa Blackw. 1858]K92
       |  |    |--+--Trichocyclus Simon 1908HF08, H11
       |  |    |  |    |--T. aranda Huber 2001T13
       |  |    |  |    |--T. arawariH11
       |  |    |  |    |--T. gnalooma Huber 2001DH10
       |  |    |  |    |--T. nigropunctatus Simon 1908T13
       |  |    |  |    |--T. nullarbor Huber 2001HF08
       |  |    |  |    `--T. warianga Huber 2001DH10
       |  |    |  `--Physocyclus Simon 1893H11
       |  |    |       |--P. dugesi Simon 1893H11
       |  |    |       |--P. enaulusCM07
       |  |    |       `--P. globosus (Taczanowski 1874)HF08
       |  |    `--Tibetia Zhang, Zhu & Song 2006H11
       |  `--ModisiminaeH11
       `--+--Smeringopinae [Holocneminae]H11
          |    |--Smeringopina Kraus 1957HF08, H11
          |    |    `--S. pulchra (Millot 1941)HF08
          |    |--Stygopholcus Kratochvil 1932H11
          |    |--Ceratopholcus Spassky 1934H11
          |    |--Cenemus Saaristo 2001H11
          |    `--+--Hoplopholcus Kulczyński 1908H11
          |       |    `--H. minotaurus Senglet 1971HF08
          |       |--+--Crossopriza Simon 1893H11
          |       |  |    |--C. cylindrogasterH11
          |       |  |    `--C. lyoni (Blackwall 1867)HF08
          |       |  `--Holocnemus Simon 1875H11
          |       |       `--H. pluchei (Scopoli 1763)HF08
          |       `--Smeringopus Simon 1890H11
          |            |--S. elongatus (Vinson 1864) (see below for synonymy)S99
          |            |--S. natalensis Lawrence 1947HF08
          |            |--S. pallidus (Blackwall 1858)HD-S02
          |            `--S. sambesicus Kraus 1957HD-S02
          `--PholcinaeHF08

Smeringopus elongatus (Vinson 1864) [=Pholcus elongatus; incl. P. distinctus Cambr. 1876, P. margarita Workman 1878, P. tipuloides Koch 1872]S99

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[DH10] Durrant, B. J., M. S. Harvey, V. W. Framenau, R. Ott & J. M. Waldock. 2010. Patterns in the composition of ground-dwelling spider communities in the Pilbara bioregion, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1): 185–204.

[HD-S02] Haddad, C. R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2002. The influence of mound structure on the diversity of spiders (Araneae) inhabiting the abandoned mounds of the snouted harvester termite Trinervitermes trinervoides. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 403–408.

[H11] Huber, B. A. 2011. Phylogeny and classification of Pholcidae (Araneae): an update. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 211–222.

[HF08] Huber, B. A., & N. Fleckenstein. 2008. Comb-hairs on the fourth tarsi in pholcid spiders. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 232–240.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[S99] Simon, E. 1899. Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific (Schauinsland 1896–1897). Arachnoideen. Zoologische Jahrbücher, Abteilung für Systematik, Geographie un Biologie der Thiere 12 (4): 411–437.

[T13] Taylor, C. K. 2013. Annotated bibliography for Barrow Island terrestrial invertebrates. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 135–144.

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