Phorinae

Phora sp., copyright Eugene K.

Belongs within: Phoridae.

The Phorinae are a group of scuttle flies characterised by more or less distinct bristles on the tibiae, particularly a proximodorsal pair on the mid tibia (Peterson 1987). In the genus Stichillus, the ocelli are arranged nearly in a straight line rather than the more typical triangle, with the ocellar region demarcated by a transverse groove (Brown 2010). Members of the genus Phora have a distinctive velvety black colour, large and prominent eyes, and at least one pair of dorsal or near dorsal setae on the mid tibia in addition to the basal pair. Diplonevra have a pair of dorsal longitudinal setal palisades on the hind tibia, supra-antennal setae, and the male cercus on an elongate, narrow stalk (Brown 2010).

Characters (from Peterson 1987): Frons bristled along entire lateral margins; supra-antennal bristles, when present, reclinate. Wing fully developed in both sexes. Tibiae with distinct, though sometimes short or weak, bristles; mid tibia always with at least a closely situated dorsal pair on basal half; other tibiae sometimes with similar bristles.

<==PhorinaeB10
|--Crinophleba rostrataP87
|--Spiniphora spinulosaP87, B10
|--Abaristophora diversipennisP87, B10
|--Hypocerides nearcticusP87, B10
|--Stichillus adamsiP87
|--Coniceromyia pilipleuraP87
|--Chaetopleurophora Schmitz 1927H02
|--Caenophorites Hong 2002H02
| `--*C. xilutianensis Hong 2002H02
|--Huaxiaphoritis Hong 2002H02
| `--*H. longispina (Hong 1981) [=Chaetopleurophora longispina]H02
|--Fushunophoritis Hong 2002H02
| `--*F. gastrocanthoidis (Hong 1981) [=Chaetopleurophora gastrocanthoidis]H02
|--Fushuniclavicornia Hong 2002H02
| `--*F. sinica (Hong 1981) [=Chaetopleurophora sinica]H02
|--Rhoptrocera Hong 1981H02
| `--*R. eocenica Hong 1981H02
|--DohrniphoraP87
| |--D. cornutaB10
| `--D. poinariP92
|--AnevrinaP87
| |--A. spinipesP87
| `--A. unispinosaB10
|--Triphleba [incl. Citrago]P87
| |--T. pachyneuraB10
| `--‘Citrago’ politifronsP87
|--BorophagaP87
| |--B. incrassata [=Hypocera incrassata]A71
| `--B. verticalisB10
|--DiplonevraP87
| |--D. floreaWJ18
| |--D. nitidulaB10
| `--D. setigeraB10
`--Phora Latreille 1796BR05
|--P. aterima (Fabricius 1794) [=Musca aterima]H02
|--P. atraG20
|--P. caraR35
|--P. hybosa Hong 1981H02
|--P. occidentataB10
|--P. pallipesR26
|--P. putris (Linnaeus 1758)L02, L58 [=Musca putrisL02]
|--P. rufipesR26
`--P. viridinotaP87

*Type species of generic name indicated

References

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[B10] Brown, B. V. 2010. Phoridae (hump-backed flies, scuttle flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 725–761. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H02] Hong Y. 2002. Amber Insect of China. Beijing Scientific and Technological Publishing House.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis revised 10th ed. vol. 1. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[P87] Peterson, B. V. 1987. Phoridae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 689–712. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[R26] Risso, A. 1826. Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l’Europe méridionale et particulièrement de celles des environs de Nice et des Alpes maritimes vol. 5. F.-G. Levrault: Paris.

[WJ18] Wahlberg, E., & K. A. Johanson. 2018. Molecular phylogenetics reveals novel relationships within Empidoidea (Diptera). Systematic Entomology 43: 619–636.

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