Southern bush monkeyflower Mimulus aurantiacus ssp. australis, copyright Seán A. O’Hara.

Belongs within: Lamiales.
Contains: Mimulus section Paradanthus, Mimulus section Eunanus.

The Phrymaceae are a smaller group of herbs and subshrubs with tubular, bilaterally symmetrical flowers, most of which were historically classified within the related family Scrophulariaceae.

Characters (from the Jepson Herbarium): Annual to shrub. Stem with cross-section generally round. Leaves opposite, simple, generally entire or toothed; stipules absent. Inflorescence a spike, raceme, or panicle, bracted, or flowers 1–2 in axils. Flower bisexual; calyx radial or more or less bilateral, tube long, generally ribbed, lobes 5; corolla generally bilateral, generally 2-lipped, upper 2- (rarely 1-)lobed, lower 3-lobed; stamens 4 in 2 pairs, epipetalous, included or exserted; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers 1–2, placentas parietal or axile, style 1, stigma lobes 2, flat, folding together when touched. Fruit generally a capsule, generally ellipsoid, loculicidal (rarely indehiscent, 1-seeded).

|–Phryma leptostachya C55
|–Microcarpaea minima LK14
`–Mimulus Linnaeus 1753 BS04, A61 [=M. subg. Mimulus BS04, M. subg. Synplacus BS04; Mimuleae, Mimulinae]
|  i. s.: M. prostratus BR65
|         M. repens Br. 1810 [incl. M. colensoi Kirk 1871] A61
|–M. sect. Mimulus BS04
|    |–M. uvedaliae BS04
|    |    |–M. u. var. uvedaliae LK14
|    |    `–M. u. var. lutea LK14
|    `–+–M. gracilis BS04
|       `–M. ringens BS04
`–+–+–Leucocarpus perfoliatus BS04
|  `–M. sect. Paradanthus BS04
`–+–+–Berendtiella rugosa BS04
|  `–Hemichaena fruticosa BS04
`–M. subg. Schizoplacus BS04
|–Mimulus (sect. Mimuloides) pilosus [=Mimetanthe pilosa] BS04
`–+–+–M. parryi BS04
|  `–M. rupicola BS04
`–+–M. sect. Eunanus BS04
`–+–M. (sect. Mimulastrum) pictus BS04
`–M. sect. Oenoe BS04
|  i. s.: M. brandegei BS04
|         M. latifolius BS04
|         M. traskiae BS04
|–+–M. pygmaeus BS04
|  `–+–M. tricolor BS04
|     `–+–M. angustatus BS04
|        `–M. pulchellus BS04
`–+–+–M. torreyi BS04
|  `–+–M. kelloggii BS04
|     `–+–M. congdonii BS04
|        `–M. douglasii BS04
`–M. sect. Diplacus BS04
|–M. aridus BS04
|–M. aurantiacus BS04 (see below for synonymy)
|    |–M. a. ssp. aurantiacus BS04
|    `–M. a. ssp. australis BS04
|–M. bifidus BS04
|    |–M. b. ssp. bifidus BS04
|    `–M. b. ssp. fasciculatus BS04
|–M. clevelandii BS04
|–M. flemingii BS04
|–M. longiflorus BS04
|    |–M. l. ssp. longiflorus BS04
|    `–M. l. ssp. calycinus BS04
`–M. puniceus BS04

Mimulus aurantiacus BS04 [incl. M. aurantiacus var. lompocensis H93, M. longiflorus var. rutilus H93]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BS04] Beardsley, P. M., S. E. Schoenig, J. B. Whittall & R. G. Olmstead. 2004. Patterns of evolution in western North American Mimulus (Phrymaceae). American Journal of Botany 91 (3): 474–489.

[BR65] Black, J. M., & E. L. Robertson. 1965. Flora of South Australia. Part IV. Oleaceae–Compositae. W. L. Hawes, Government Printer: Adelaide.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[LK14] Lyons, M. N., G. J. Keighery, L. A. Gibson & T. Handasyde. 2014. Flora and vegetation communities of selected islands off the Kimberley coast of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 81: 205–244.

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