Phthiracarus setosus, from here.

Belongs within: Ptyctima.
Contains: Phthiracarus (Phthiracarus), Phthiracarus (Archiphthiracarus), Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus), Hoplophthiracarus, Steganacarus, Notophthiracarus, Atropacarus.

The Phthiracaridae are a group of box mites with a broad anogenital region, with an articulating cuticle between the anogenital region and an overhanging tectum of the notogaster. This articulation presumably allows the anogenital region to be lowered, expanding the effective volume of the notogaster and allowing withdrawal of the legs (Norton 2001). The cuticle is mineralised to varying degrees with calcium carbonate, in some species to the point of being brittle and opalescent (Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009). Phthiracarids can be divided between two main lineages. In Phthiracarus, the interlamellar setae are long and smooth, and the body surface is smooth or finely punctate. The Steganacarinae and Atropacarinae, in contrast, have the interlamellar setae thickened and/or the body surface sculptured. Phthiracarus is divided between four subgenera with the Holarctic Metaphthiracarus being distinguished by the presence of notogastral neotrichy but not ano-adanal neotrichy (Aoki 1980).

The steganacarine and atropacarine groups can be distinguished by the position of seta d on the fourth tibia. In steganacarine taxa, this seta is long and removed from the accompanying solenidion, whereas in atropacarine taxa the seta is short and closely coupled with the solenidion (Balogh & Balogh 1992). Most steganacarines (forming the tribe Steganacarini) have the surface of the body commonly sculpted with concavities and furrows on the rear of the prodorsum; such ornamentation is absent in Plonaphacarus. Within the Atropacarinae, the genera Notophthiracarus and Atropacarus have the genital setae forming a single line whereas Austrophthiracarus and Protophthiracarus have seta g6 displaced laterally to sit outside g5; this latter state is shared with members of the Steganacarinae (Niedbała 1986b).

Characters (from Balogh & Balogh 1992): Body ptychoid (legs can be withdrawn and aspis closed against notogaster and ventral region), only slightly compressed laterally; notogaster without transverse sutures; anogenital region occupying entire length of ventral region, wide, almost U-shaped, resembling four wings of a French window, genital and anal plates not separated by a ventral plate.

<==Phthiracaridae [Hoplophoridae, Hoplophorinae, Phthiracarea, Phthiracarini, Phthiracaroidea, Steganacaridae]S04
    |--Phthiracarus Perty 1841N91, S04 [Phthiracarinae]
    |    |  i. s.: P. forsslundiN01
    |    |         P. retaltecus (Stoll 1891) [=Hoplophora retalteca]M98
    |    |         P. sphaerulusJ37
    |    |         ‘Hoplophorella’ variolosa Berlese 1888N86a
    |    |--P. (Phthiracarus)S04
    |    |--P. (Archiphthiracarus)S04
    |    |--P. (Metaphthiracarus Aoki 1980)S04
    |    |    |--P. (M.) setosus (Banks 1895)S04 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--P. (M.) jumbongiensis (Niedbała 2002) [=Austrophthiracarus jumbongiensis]S04
    |    `--P. (Neophthiracarus)S04
       |    |--Plonaphacarus Niedbała 1986N91, S04 [Plonaphacarini]
       |    |    |--*P. eximius (Niedbała 1982)CH98 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |    |--P. adunctus Niedbała & Colloff 1997N06 [=Rhacaplacarus aduncusS04]
       |    |    |--P. baculus Niedbała 2003N07
       |    |    |--P. feideri Niedbała 1987N06 [=Rhacaplacarus feideriS04]
       |    |    |--P. kugohi (Aoki 1959)SN98 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |    `--P. toolangiensis Niedbała 2006N06
       |    `--SteganacariniN86b
       |         |--HoplophthiracarusN91
       |         `--SteganacarusN91
       `--Atropacarinae [Atropacarini]N91
            |  i. s.: Arphthiracarus Niedbała 1994CH98
            |           |--*A. latebrosus (Niedbała 1982)CH98 (see below for synonymy)
            |           |--A. allocotos Niedbała 2003N07
            |           |--A. brasiliensis (Niedbała 1988)N07
            |           |--A. inelegans (Niedbała 1986)N07 (see below for synonymy)
            |           |--A. mirandus (Niedbała 1988)N07 [=Austrophthiracarus mirandusN07, Rhacaplacarus mirandusS04]
            |           |--A. pervalidus Niedbała 2003N07
            |           |--A. saucius (Niedbała 1988)N07 [=Austrophthiracarus sauciusN07, Rhacaplacarus sauciusS04]
            |           `--A. scuticus Niedbała 2006N06
            |  `--AtropacarusN91
            `--+--Austrophthiracarus Balogh & Mahunka 1978N91, N86b [incl. Phthirarica Mahunka 1982S04]
               |    |--*A. radiatus Balogh & Mahunka 1978CH98 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--A. aculeatus Niedbała & Colloff 1997N06 [=Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) aculeatusS04]
               |    |--A. admirabilis (Niedbała 1982)N07 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--A. baloghi Niedbała 1987N06 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--A. caudatus (Balogh & Mahunka 1977)N07
               |    |--A. contrarius Niedbała 1985N91
               |    |--A. dissonus Niedbała & Colloff 1997N06 [=Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) praeoccupatus Subías 2004S04]
               |    |--A. facetus Niedbała & Colloff 1997N06 [=Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) facetusS04]
               |    |--A. fusticulus Niedbała 2000N06 [=Notophthiracarus fusticulusS04]
               |    |--A. glennieensis Niedbała 2006N06
               |    |--A. kochi Niedbała 1987N06 [=Calyptophthiracarus kochiS04, Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) kochiS04]
               |    |--A. largus Niedbała 2000N06 [=Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) repetitus Subías 2004S04]
               |    |--A. latior (Niedbała 1982)SN98
               |    |--A. mutabilis Niedbała & Colloff 1997N06 [=Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) mutabilisS04]
               |    |--A. nexilis Niedbała 2003N07
               |    |--A. nicoleti Niedbała 1987N06, S04 [=Calyptophthiracarus nicoletiS04, Notophthiracarus nicoletiCH98]
               |    |--A. parafusticulus Niedbała 2006N06
               |    |--A. parapilosus Niedbała 2006N06
               |    |--A. parapulchellus Niedbała 2006N06
               |    |--A. perpropinquus Niedbała & Colloff 1997N06 [=Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) perpropinqusS04]
               |    |--A. phaleratus (Niedbała 1982)N07 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--A. pilosus Niedbała & Colloff 1997N06 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--A. pulchellus Niedbała 1993N06 [=Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) pulchellusS04]
               |    |--A. retrorsus Niedbała 2003N07
               |    |--A. ridiculus (Mahunka 1982)N07 [=*Phthirarica ridiculaS04, Notophthiracarus (*Phthirarica) ridiculusS04]
               |    |--A. scopoli Niedbała 1987N06 [=Calyptophthiracarus scopoliS04, Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) scopoliS04]
               |    |--A. sellnicki (Niedbała 1987)N06 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--A. traegardhi (Niedbała 1987)N06 (see below for synonymy)
               |    |--A. warburtonensis Niedbała 2006N06
               |    |--A. weldboroughensis Niedbała 2006N06
               |    |--A. willmanni Niedbała 1987N06 [=Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) willmanniS04]
               |    `--A. zeuktos Niedbała 2003N07
               `--Protophthiracarus Balogh 1972N91, N86b [=Notophthiracarus Balogh & Mahunka 1967 non Ramsay 1966S04]
                    |--*P. chilensis (Balogh & Mahunka 1967)S04 (see below for synonymy)
                    |--P. andinus (Balogh 1984) [=Phthirarica andina, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) andinus]S04
                    |--P. brasiliensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1980S04 (see below for synonymy)
                    |--P. clandestinus Niedbała 2003N07
                    |--P. daimonios (Niedbała 2000) (see below for synonymy)S04
                    |--P. finitimus Niedbała 2002N07 [=Hoplophorella finitimaS04]
                    |--P. heteropilosus Niedbała 2003N07
                    |--P. neotrichus (Wallwork 1966) (see below for synonymy)S04
                    |--P. permirus Niedbała 1991N07 [=Hoplophorella permirusS04]
                    |--P. strigosus (Niedbała 1984)S04 (see below for synonymy)
                    `--P. ventosus (Hammer 1961)S04 (see below for synonymy)
Nomina nuda: Phthiracarus meridionalis Hammen 1959N86a
             Phthiracarus ponticus Krivolutsky 1975N86a

Arphthiracarus inelegans (Niedbała 1986)N07 [=Hoplophthiracarus inelegansN07, Austrophthiracarus inelegansN86a, Notophthiracarus inelegansS04; incl. H. atypicus Mahunka 1988S04]

*Arphthiracarus latebrosus (Niedbała 1982)CH98 [=Hoplophthiracarus latebrosusS04, Austrophthiracarus latebrosusN86a, Notophthiracarus latebrosusS04]

Austrophthiracarus admirabilis (Niedbała 1982)N07 [=Neophthiracarus admirabilisN07, Calyptophthiracarus admirabilisN86a, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) admirabilisS04]

Austrophthiracarus baloghi Niedbała 1987N06 [=Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) baloghi non P. baloghi Feider & Suciu 1957S04]

Austrophthiracarus phaleratus (Niedbała 1982)N07 [=Neophthiracarus phaleratusN07, Calyptophthiracarus phaleratusN86a, Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) phaleratusS04]

Austrophthiracarus pilosus Niedbała & Colloff 1997N06 [=Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) pilosus non P. pilosus Sergienko 1987S04]

*Austrophthiracarus radiatus Balogh & Mahunka 1978CH98 [=Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) radiatusS04, Calyptophthiracarus radiatusH98; incl. Austrophthiracarus similis Balogh & Balogh 1983S04, Calyptophthiracarus similisCH98]

Austrophthiracarus sellnicki (Niedbała 1987)N06 [=Calyptophthiracarus sellnickiH98, Phthiracarus (Neophthiracarus) obsessus Subías 2004S04]

Austrophthiracarus traegardhi (Niedbała 1987) [=Calyptophthiracarus tragardhi, A. tragardhi, Notophthiracarus (Phthirarica) traegardhi]N06

Phthiracarus (Metaphthiracarus) setosus (Banks 1895)S04 [=Hoplophora setosaS04; incl. *Metaphthiracarus bacillatus Aoki 1980S04, Phthiracarus falcatus Hammer 1977S04, Archiphthiracarus filiferus Mahunka 1982S04, P. filiferusN84b]

*Plonaphacarus eximius (Niedbała 1982)CH98 [=Hoplophthiracarus eximiusCH98, Rhacaplacarus eximiusS04; incl. Steganacarus politus Mahunka 1983S04]

Plonaphacarus kugohi (Aoki 1959)SN98 [=Hoplophthiracarus kugohiCH98; incl. Hoplophthiracarus africanus Mahunka 1984S04, Hoplophthiracarus minor Mahunka 1991 non H. minus Krivolutsky 1966S04, Hoplophthiracarus rimosus Mahunka 1985S04, Hoplophtniracarus (l. c.) siamensis Aoki 1965CH98, Hoplophthiracarus kugohi siamensisCH98, Hoplophthiracarus wittmeri Bayoumi & Mahunka 1979S04, Hoplophthiracarus (Plonaphacarus) yoshii Mahunka 1991S04]

Protophthiracarus brasiliensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio 1980S04 [=Hoplophthiracarus brasiliensisN86a, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) brasiliensisS04]

*Protophthiracarus chilensis (Balogh & Mahunka 1967)S04 [=*Notophthiracarus chilensisCH98, Neophthiracarus chilensisN86b]

Protophthiracarus daimonios (Niedbała 2000) [=Austrophthiracarus daimonios, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) daimonios]S04

Protophthiracarus neotrichus (Wallwork 1966) [=Neophthiracarus neotrichus, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) neotrichus]S04

Protophthiracarus strigosus (Niedbała 1984)S04 [=Neophthiracarus strigosusS04, Calyptophthiracarus strigosusN86a, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) strigosusS04]

Protophthiracarus ventosus (Hammer 1961)S04 [=Steganacarus ventosusS04, Neophthiracarus ventosusN84a, Notophthiracarus (Protophthiracarus) ventosusS04]

*Type species of generic name indicated


Aoki, J. 1980. A revision of the oribatid mites of Japan. I. The families Phthiracaridae and Oribotritiidae. Bulletin of the Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Yokohama National University 6 (2): 1–89.

Balogh, J., & P. Balogh. 1992. The Oribatid Mites Genera of the World vol. 1. Hungarian Natural History Museum: Budapest.

[CH98] Colloff, M. J., & R. B. Halliday. 1998. Oribatid Mites: A catalogue of Australian genera and species. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[J37] Jacot, A. P. 1937. Six new mites from western North Carolina. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (6): 163–166.

[M98] Michael, A. D. 1898. Oribatidae. In: H. Lohmann (ed.) Das Tierreich. Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen vol. 3. Acarina pp. 1–93. R. Friedländer und Sohn: Berlin.

[N84a] Niedbała, W. 1984a. La redescription des Phthiracaridae (Acari, Oribatida) de Marie Hammer. Annales Zoologici 38 (8): 173–203.

[N84b] Niedbała, W. 1984b. Nouveaux Phthiracaridae d’Asie (Acari: Oribatida). Journal of Natural History 18: 829–842.

[N86a] Niedbała, W. 1986a. Catalogue des Phthiracaroidea (Acari), clef pour la détermination des espèces et descriptions d’espèces nouvelles. Annales Zoologici 40 (4): 309–370.

[N86b] Niedbała, W. 1986b. Système des Phthiracaroidea (Oribatida, Euptyctima). Acarologia 27 (1): 61–84.

[N91] Niedbała, W. 1991. Preliminary hypotheses on the biogeography of the Phthiracaroidea (Acari, Oribatida). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 219–231. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[N01] Niedbała, W. 2001. Study of the diversity of Ptyctima (Acari: Oribatida) and quest for centres of its origin: the fauna of the Oriental and Australian regions. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 143–148. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[N06] Niedbała, W. 2006. Supplement to the knowledge of ptyctimous mites (Acari: Oribatida) from Australian region. Annales Zoologici 56 (Suppl. 1): 99–156.

[N07] Niedbała, W. 2007. Ptyctimous mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Costa Rica. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 39–42. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[S04] Subías, L. S. 2004. Listado sistemático, sinonímico y biogeográfico de los ácaros oribátidos (Acariformes, Oribatida) del mundo (1758–2002). Graellsia 60 (número extraordinario): 3–305.

[SN98] Swift, S. F., & R. A. Norton. 1998. Preliminary report on oribatid mite (Acari: Oribatida) diversity in the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 57: 1–44.

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